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Apoptosis is implicated in the generation and resolution of inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. All bacterial pathogens produce lipoproteins (BLPs), which trigger the innate immune response. BLPs were found to induce apoptosis in THP-1 monocytic cells through human Toll-like receptor-2 (hTLR2). BLPs also initiated apoptosis in an epithelial(More)
The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the only experimental animal susceptible to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The chimpanzee model of HCV infection was instrumental in the initial studies on non-A, non-B hepatitis, including observations on the clinical course of infection, determination of the physical properties of the virus, and eventual(More)
Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious human pathogens known. Although much has been learned about the immune response of mice using an attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) derived from F. tularensis subspecies holarctica (Type B), little is known about the responses of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DC). Here, we show that(More)
Pneumonia is a serious problem worldwide. We recently demonstrated that innate defense mechanisms of the lung are highly inducible against pneumococcal pneumonia. To determine the breadth of protection conferred by stimulation of lung mucosal innate immunity, and to identify cells and signaling pathways activated by this treatment, mice were treated with an(More)
Francisella tularensis (Ft) is resistant to serum but requires complement factor C3-derived opsonins for uptake by phagocytic cells and subsequent intracellular growth. In this study, we show that C3 fragments, deposited on Ft, are detected by anti-C3d and -iC3b mAb and that the classical and the alternative pathways are involved in this event. This was(More)
Potential additive effects of ethanol consumption, a common life-style factor, and low-level benzene exposure, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, were investigated. Ethanol is a potent inducer of the cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme, which bioactivates benzene to metabolites with known genotoxicity and immunotoxicity. A liquid diet containing 4.1%(More)
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Little is known about how this virus is able to persist or whether this persistence might be because of its ability to alter the early innate immune response. The major HCV envelope protein E2 has been shown to bind to CD81. Thus, HCV binding to natural killer (NK)(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were evaluated in chimpanzees that had previously cleared HCV and were rechallenged. Animals that had previously cleared HCV infection rapidly cleared homologous and heterologous virus upon rechallenge, indicative of a strong protective immunity. In one animal, sterilizing immunity was observed with regard to viremia,(More)
The interferons (IFN) are one of the body's natural defensive responses to such foreign components as microbes, tumors, and antigens. The IFN response begins with the production of the IFN proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma), which then induce the antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions of IFN. Recent advances have led to Food and(More)
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection frequently develops into liver disease and is accompanied by extra-hepatic autoimmune manifestations. The tetraspanin CD81 is a putative HCV receptor as it binds the E2 envelope glycoprotein of HCV and bona fide HCV particles. Here we show that HCV E2 binding to CD81 on human cells in vitro lowers the threshold for(More)