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Apoptosis is implicated in the generation and resolution of inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. All bacterial pathogens produce lipoproteins (BLPs), which trigger the innate immune response. BLPs were found to induce apoptosis in THP-1 monocytic cells through human Toll-like receptor-2 (hTLR2). BLPs also initiated apoptosis in an epithelial(More)
The interferons (IFN) are one of the body's natural defensive responses to such foreign components as microbes, tumors, and antigens. The IFN response begins with the production of the IFN proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma), which then induce the antiviral, antimicrobial, antitumor, and immunomodulatory actions of IFN. Recent advances have led to Food and(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were evaluated in chimpanzees that had previously cleared HCV and were rechallenged. Animals that had previously cleared HCV infection rapidly cleared homologous and heterologous virus upon rechallenge, indicative of a strong protective immunity. In one animal, sterilizing immunity was observed with regard to viremia,(More)
Septic shock is a major cause of death in the world. Although much is known about the role of LPS in septic shock, little is known about the role of other bacterial components. Lipoprotein (LP) is a major component of bacteria in the family Enterobacteriaceae. LP purified from Escherichia coli was shown to induce TNF-alpha and IL-6 production in peritoneal(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear lymphocytes (PBL) from thermal injury patients were examined for their ability to mediate natural killer (NK) cell activity against K562 tumour cells and against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infected Raji tumour cells. Using fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibodies, the number of T3, T4, T8, Leu11, and(More)
Granzymes, serine proteases located in the granules of cytotoxic T cel ls and NK cells, are essential for induction of target cell apoptosis. However, since cytotoxic cells constitutively secrete a portion of their synthesized granzymes, these proteases could mediate extracellular functions independent of their role in the lytic event. Thrombin, another(More)
Francisella tularensis is one of the most infectious human pathogens known. Although much has been learned about the immune response of mice using an attenuated live vaccine strain (LVS) derived from F. tularensis subspecies holarctica (Type B), little is known about the responses of human monocyte-derived immature dendritic cells (DC). Here, we show that(More)
alpha-Thrombin is a multifunctional serine protease that has an important role in the coagulation cascade, wound healing, and inflammatory response. In this study, we show that thrombin induces IL-6 production in human epithelial cells and fibroblasts. ELISA and Northern blot analyses showed that physiologic concentrations of thrombin (0.1-1 micrograms/ml)(More)
The chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) is the only experimental animal susceptible to infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The chimpanzee model of HCV infection was instrumental in the initial studies on non-A, non-B hepatitis, including observations on the clinical course of infection, determination of the physical properties of the virus, and eventual(More)
Pneumonia is a serious problem worldwide. We recently demonstrated that innate defense mechanisms of the lung are highly inducible against pneumococcal pneumonia. To determine the breadth of protection conferred by stimulation of lung mucosal innate immunity, and to identify cells and signaling pathways activated by this treatment, mice were treated with an(More)