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Apoptosis is implicated in the generation and resolution of inflammation in response to bacterial pathogens. All bacterial pathogens produce lipoproteins (BLPs), which trigger the innate immune response. BLPs were found to induce apoptosis in THP-1 monocytic cells through human Toll-like receptor-2 (hTLR2). BLPs also initiated apoptosis in an epithelial(More)
Infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Little is known about how this virus is able to persist or whether this persistence might be because of its ability to alter the early innate immune response. The major HCV envelope protein E2 has been shown to bind to CD81. Thus, HCV binding to natural killer (NK)(More)
The mechanism of cholera toxin (CT)-stimulated arachidonate metabolism was evaluated. CT caused rapid in vitro synthesis of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in murine smooth muscle-like cells (BC3H1), reaching maximal levels within 3 to 4 min. In comparison, cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels were unchanged, and addition of dibutyryl cAMP did not affect PGE2 synthesis.(More)
Septic shock due to Salmonella and other gram-negative enteric pathogens is a leading cause of death worldwide. The role of lipopolysaccharide in sepsis is well studied; however, the contribution of other bacterial outer membrane components, such as Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp), is not well defined. The genome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium(More)
Yersinia pestis evolved from Y. pseudotuberculosis to become the causative agent of bubonic and pneumonic plague. We identified a homolog of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium lipoprotein (lpp) gene in Yersinia species and prepared lpp gene deletion mutants of Y. pseudotuberculosis YPIII, Y. pestis KIM/D27 (pigmentation locus minus), and Y. pestis(More)
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp) are major components of the outer membrane of gram-negative enteric bacteria that function as potent stimulators of inflammatory and immune responses. In a previous paper, we provided evidence that two functional copies of the lipoprotein gene (lppA and lppB) located on the chromosome of(More)
Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have(More)
The role of stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor (c-kit) in the intestinal secretory response to cholera toxin (CT) was investigated using a ligated intestinal loop model in mice having mutations in the dominant white spotting (W) locus and the steel (Sl) locus. W/Wv mice, which express an aberrant form of the c-kit protein, failed to give an intestinal(More)
Cholera toxin (CT) has been shown to induce stem cell factor (SCF) production in mouse ligated intestinal loops. Further, SCF interaction(s) with its receptor (c-kit) was shown to be important for the intestinal tract secretory response after CT exposure. In this study, we have investigated whether SCF production is induced in the intestinal tract after(More)