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We propose and characterize oil-in-gelatin dispersions that approximate the dispersive dielectric properties of a variety of human soft tissues over the microwave frequency range from 500 MHz to 20 GHz. Different tissues are mimicked by selection of an appropriate concentration of oil. The materials possess long-term stability and can be employed in(More)
OBJECTIVE As are the attenuation coefficient and sound speed, the backscatter coefficient is a fundamental ultrasonic property that has been used to characterize many tissues. Unfortunately, there is currently far less standardization for the ultrasonic backscatter measurement than for the other two, as evidenced by a previous American Institute of(More)
Tissue-mimicking phantoms and an automated system have been developed for testing the resolution performance of ultrasound scanners by determining detectability of low to higher contrast spherical lesions over the entire depth of field. Axial, lateral and elevational resolutions are accounted for simultaneously and equally. Tissue-mimicking spherical(More)
This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the location of the breast surface from scattered ultrawideband (UWB) microwave signals recorded across an antenna array. Knowing the location of the breast surface can improve imaging performance if incorporated as a priori information into recently proposed microwave imaging algorithms. These techniques(More)
A ten-month study is presented of materials for use in heterogeneous elastography phantoms. The materials consist of gelatin with or without a suspension of microscopic safflower oil droplets. The highest volume percent of oil in the materials is 50%. Thimerosal acts as a preservative. The greater the safflower oil concentration, the lower the Young's(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the spatial accuracy of coordinates generated from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, using the Brown-Roberts-Wells head frame and localizer system (Radionics, Inc., Burlington, MA). METHODS An anthropomorphic head phantom, consisting of a two-dimensional lattice of acrylic spheres (4-mm diameter) spaced 10 mm apart and embedded in(More)
Elastography is an emerging imaging modality that allows noninvasive imaging of tissue stiffness changes and stiffness values associated with pathology or as a result of therapy. However, many currently-used systems for elastography rely on a fixed geometry transducer and compressor system for imaging. This configuration is disadvantageous for imaging(More)
This paper evaluates the performance of a level set algorithm for segmenting the endocardium in short-axis ultrasound images. The evaluation is carried out using an anthropomorphic ultrasound phantom. Details of the phantom design, including comparison of the ultrasound parameters with in-vitro measurements, are included. In addition to measuring(More)
An accurate means of determining and correcting for daily patient setup errors is important to the cancer outcome in radiotherapy. While many tools have been developed to detect setup errors, difficulty may arise in accurately adjusting the patient to account for the rotational error components. A novel, automated method to correct for rotational patient(More)
A phantom made from tissue-mimicking materials is reported for testing 1H MRI systems regarding their ability to detect small low-contrast focal lesions and to delineate the boundaries of larger lesions. Two sets of seven spherical simulated lesions with diameters of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6.3, 7.9, and 9.5 mm have T1 and T2 values somewhat higher than the(More)