Gary R. Carvalho

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Timing divergence events allow us to infer the conditions under which biodiversity has evolved and gain important insights into the mechanisms driving evolution. Cichlid fishes are a model system for studying speciation and adaptive radiation, yet, we have lacked reliable timescales for their evolution. Phylogenetic reconstructions are consistent with(More)
Continental lake-dwelling zooplanktonic organisms have long been considered cosmopolitan species with little geographic variation in spite of the isolation of their habitats. Evidence of morphological cohesiveness and high dispersal capabilities support this interpretation. However, this view has been challenged recently as many such species have been shown(More)
Although the effects of overfishing on species diversity and abundance are well documented, threats to the genetic diversity of marine fish populations have so far been largely neglected. Indeed, there seems to be little cause for concern, as even "collapsed" stocks usually consist of several million individuals, whereas population genetics theory suggests(More)
Biodiversity assessment is the key to understanding the relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, but there is a well-acknowledged biodiversity identification gap related to eukaryotic meiofaunal organisms. Meiofaunal identification is confounded by the small size of taxa, morphological convergence and intraspecific variation. However,(More)
Information on statistical power is critical when planning investigations and evaluating empirical data, but actual power estimates are rarely presented in population genetic studies. We used computer simulations to assess and evaluate power when testing for genetic differentiation at multiple loci through combining test statistics or P values obtained by(More)
Introduction page 326 The stock concept: an amalgam of ideas 327 Molecular genetic tools and the stock concept 330 The nature of molecular variation Protein variation: anozyme electrophoresis Nucleic acid variation Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis Nuclear DNA analysis Applications of molecular tools 335 Genetic stock structure analysis: problems and(More)
Marine fishes have been shown to display low levels of genetic structuring and associated high levels of gene flow, suggesting shallow evolutionary trajectories and, possibly, limited or lacking adaptive divergence among local populations. We investigated variation in 98 gene-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for evidence of selection in(More)
Biodiversity is of crucial importance for ecosystem functioning, sustainability and resilience, but the magnitude and organization of marine diversity at a range of spatial and taxonomic scales are undefined. In this paper, we use second-generation sequencing to unmask putatively diverse marine metazoan biodiversity in a Scottish temperate benthic(More)
Despite increasing evidence that current exploitation rates can contribute to shifts in life-history traits and the collapse of marine fish stocks, few empirical studies have investigated the likely evolutionary impacts. Here, we used DNA recovered from a temporal series of archived North Sea cod (Gadus morhua) otoliths, to investigate genetic diversity(More)
We investigated the phylogeography of the salt water rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, a cyclical parthenogen with passive dispersal mechanisms, using resting eggs recovered from saline lake sediments. Individual resting eggs were obtained from a large selection of lakes which were representative of five endorheic basins and the chain of coastal ponds in the(More)