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Checkpoint kinase 1 (ChK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that functions as a central mediator of the intra-S and G2-M cell-cycle checkpoints. Following DNA damage or replication stress, ChK1-mediated phosphorylation of downstream effectors delays cell-cycle progression so that the damaged genome can be repaired. As a therapeutic strategy, inhibition of ChK1(More)
Both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) and VEGF overexpression correlate with aggressive phenotypes and decreased survival among breast cancer patients. Concordantly, the combination of trastuzumab (anti-HER2) with bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) has shown promising results in preclinical xenograft studies and in clinical trials. However, despite(More)
Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins suppress apoptosis and are overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Small-molecule IAP antagonists are currently being tested in clinical trials as novel cancer therapeutics. GDC-0152 is a small-molecule drug that triggers tumor cell apoptosis by selectively antagonizing IAPs. GDC-0152 induces NF-κB transcriptional(More)
MEK, a kinase downstream of Ras and Raf oncogenes, constitutes a high priority target in oncology research. MEK small molecule inhibitors cause soft tissue mineralization in rats secondary to serum inorganic phosphorus (iP) elevation, but the molecular mechanism for this toxicity remains undetermined. We performed investigative studies with structurally(More)
Several toxicities are clearly driven by free drug concentrations in plasma, such as toxicities related to on-target exaggerated pharmacology or off-target pharmacological activity associated with receptors, enzymes or ion channels. However, there are examples in which organ toxicities appear to correlate better with total drug concentrations in the target(More)
PURPOSE Although agents targeting Delta-like ligand 4 (DLL4) have shown great promise for angiogenesis-based cancer therapy, findings in recent studies have raised serious safety concerns. To further evaluate the potential for therapeutic targeting of the DLL4 pathway, we pursued a novel strategy to reduce toxicities related to DLL4 inhibition by modulating(More)
p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) has an important role in transducing signals in several oncogenic pathways. The concept of inhibiting this kinase has garnered significant interest over the past decade, particularly for targeting cancers associated with PAK1 amplification. Animal studies with the selective group I PAK (pan-PAK1, 2, 3) inhibitor G-5555 from the(More)
Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated (MAPK/ERK) pathway is an attractive therapeutic approach for human cancer therapy. In the course of evaluating structurally distinct small molecule inhibitors that target mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and ERK kinases in this pathway, we observed an unusual,(More)
The R- and S-enantiomer of N-(4-(3-(1-ethyl-3,3-difluoropiperidin-4-ylamino)-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridin-4-yloxy)-3-fluorophenyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)-3-oxo-2,3-dihydropyridazine-4-carboxamide are novel MET kinase inhibitors that have been investigated as potential anticancer agents. The effect of the chirality of these compounds on preclinical in vivo(More)
Both human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu) and VEGF overexpression correlate with aggressive phenotypes and decreased survival among breast cancer patients. Concordantly, the combination of trastuzumab (anti-HER2) with bevacizumab (anti-VEGF) has shown promising results in preclinical xenograft studies and in clinical trials. However, despite(More)
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