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The role played by chronic episodic hypoxia (EHYP) in the neurocognitive morbidity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is unknown. Sleep recordings, Morris water maze experiments, and immunohistochemistry for NMDA NR1 glutamate receptor, c-fos protein, and apoptosis [nuclear immunoreactivity for single-stranded DNA and terminal deoxynucleotidyl(More)
Estrogen can influence the expression of behaviors not associated directly with reproduction, including learning and memory. However, the effects of estrogen on learning and memory in mammals are complex, dependent on a variety of factors. The radial arm maze is a traditional experimental task that takes advantage of the natural foraging strategy of rats(More)
This study investigated the effect of estrogen treatment on working memory and reference memory of female rats. In addition, the impact of estrogen on the sensitivity of these two types of memory to the cholinergic antagonist scopolamine was investigated. At 35 days of ages, rats were ovariectomized and implanted chronically with Silastic capsules(More)
Elevated levels of circulating estrogen in female rats result in increased spine and synapse density and parallel increases in NMDA receptor binding in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Estrogen also influences cholinergic neurochemistry in the basal forebrain and hippocampus. The objectives of the present study were to determine the role of acetylcholine in the(More)
In a previous study, administration of high doses of estradiol benzoate (100 microgram/kg for 3 days im) to ovariectomized Long-Evans rats counteracted impairments of reinforced T-maze alternation induced by systemic administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor blocker. In the current study, daily administration of lower doses of estradiol benzoate(More)
The purpose of the experiments was to determine if steroid hormone treatments would attenuate the effect of the muscarinic receptor blocker scopolamine on a memory task. Ovariectomized rats were trained first to alternate for food reward between the arms of a T maze. Following training, females treated with scopolamine hydrobromide (0.2 mg/kg ip) did not(More)
Systemic administration of estradiol benzoate (EB) to ovariectomized female rats significantly altered cholinergic muscarinic binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in discrete brain regions. Specifically, EB increased muscarinic binding in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH) and decreased muscarinic binding in the medial preoptic area (POA). These(More)
The ability of cholinergic agents to influence hormone-dependent sexual behavior in female rats was examined. In the first experiment, female sexual behavior, indicated by the incidence of lordosis, was significantly increased in estrogen-treated female rats following bilateral infusion of a cholinergic receptor agonist, carbachol (.5 microgram/cannula),(More)
Corticosteroids act classically via cognate nuclear receptors to regulate gene transcription; however, increasing evidence supports rapid, nontranscriptional corticosteroid actions via activation of membrane receptors. Using whole-cell patch clamp recordings in hypothalamic slices from male mouse genetic models, we tested for nongenomic glucocorticoid(More)
The binding of [3H]N-methyl scopolamine (NMS) to muscarinic binding sites in rat forebrain was compared in two types of preparations: homogenates and slide-mounted sections. Under standard assay conditions, [3H]NMS bound to the muscarinic binding site with an apparent Kd that was almost one order of magnitude lower in homogenates (Kd = 0.15 nM) than(More)