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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic infection in more than 350 million people worldwide. It replicates in hepatocytes but is non-cytopathic; liver damage is thought to be immune mediated. Here, we investigated the role of innate immune responses in mediating liver damage in patients with chronic HBV infection. Longitudinal analysis revealed a temporal(More)
The primary reservoir for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication is believed to be hepatocytes, which are highly polarized with tight junctions (TJ) separating their basolateral and apical domains. HepG2 cells develop polarity over time, resulting in the formation and remodeling of bile canalicular (BC) structures. HepG2 cells expressing CD81 provide a model(More)
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been associated with glucocorticoid excess and androgen deficiency, yet in the majority of patients with steatohepatitis, circulating cortisol and androgen levels are normal. The enzyme 5α-reductase (5αR) has a critical role in androgen and glucocorticoid action. We hypothesize that 5αR has an important role in(More)
Glucocorticoids (GC) are implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome, and patients with GC excess share many clinical features, such as central obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with obesity or type 2 diabetes, systemic GC concentrations seem to be invariably normal. Tissue GC concentrations determined by the(More)
Antiviral T cell responses in hepatotropic viral infections such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) are profoundly diminished and prone to apoptotic deletion. In this study, we investigate whether the large population of activated NK cells in the human liver contributes to this process. We show that in vitro removal of NK cells augments circulating CD8(+) T cell(More)
Successful and consistent isolation of primary human hepatocytes remains a challenge for both cell-based therapeutics/transplantation and laboratory research. Several centres around the world have extensive experience in the isolation of human hepatocytes from non-diseased livers obtained from donor liver surplus to surgical requirement or at hepatic(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS IL-17 secreting CD4 (Th17) and CD8 (Tc17) T cells have been implicated in immune-mediated liver diseases, but the molecular basis for their recruitment and positioning within the liver is unknown. METHODS The phenotype and migratory behaviour of human liver-derived Th17 and Tc17 cells were investigated by flow cytometry and chemotaxis(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes progressive liver disease and is a major risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the role of infection in HCC pathogenesis is poorly understood. We investigated the effect(s) of HCV infection and viral glycoprotein expression on hepatoma biology to gain insights into the(More)
We used SEREX technology to identify novel tumour-associated antigens in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma and found serological responses to the polycomb group (PcG) protein BMI-1, which is overexpressed in a range of different tumour types. Further studies identified T-cell responses to both BMI-1 and another PcG protein, EZH2, in cancer(More)
Tumour necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) have been associated with liver regeneration in vivo. To further investigate the role of this pathway we examined their expression in human fibrotic liver disease and the effect of pathway deficiency in a murine model of liver(More)