Gary Leon Johnson

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Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are serine-threonine protein kinases that are activated by diverse stimuli ranging from cytokines, growth factors, neurotransmitters, hormones, cellular stress, and cell adherence. Mitogen-activated protein kinases are expressed in all eukaryotic cells. The basic assembly of MAPK pathways is a three-component module(More)
Multicellular organisms have three well-characterized subfamilies of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that control a vast array of physiological processes. These enzymes are regulated by a characteristic phosphorelay system in which a series of three protein kinases phosphorylate and activate one another. The extracellular signal-regulated kinases(More)
Mixed-lineage kinases (MLKs) are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate signalling by the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. MLKs are represented in the genomes of both Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. The Drosophila MLK Slipper regulates JNK to control dorsal closure during(More)
The GTPases Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42 act together to control cytoskeleton dynamics. Recent biosensor studies have shown that all three GTPases are activated at the front of migrating cells, and biochemical evidence suggests that they may regulate one another: Cdc42 can activate Rac1 (ref. 8), and Rac1 and RhoA are mutually inhibitory. However, their(More)
The tissue polarity mutants in Drosophila include a set of conserved gene products that appear to be involved in the control of cytoskeletal architecture. Here we show that the tissue polarity gene prickle (pk) encodes a protein with a triple LIM domain and a novel domain that is present in human, murine, and Caenorhabditis elegans homologs which we(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are components of a three kinase regulatory cascade. There are multiple members of each component family of kinases in the MAPK module. Specificity of regulation is achieved by organization of MAPK modules, in part, by use of scaffolding and anchoring proteins. Scaffold proteins bring together specific kinases for(More)
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are sporadically acquired or inherited vascular lesions of the central nervous system consisting of clusters of dilated thin-walled blood vessels that predispose individuals to seizures and stroke. Familial CCM is caused by mutations in KRIT1 (CCM1) or in malcavernin (CCM2), the murine ortholog of which was(More)
Growth factors activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and Jun kinases (JNKs). Although the signaling cascade from growth factor receptors to ERKs is relatively well understood, the pathway leading to JNK activation is more obscure. Activation of JNK by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are rapidly phosphorylated and activated in response to various extracellular stimuli in many different cell types. Such regulation of MAPK results from sequential activation of a series of protein kinases. The kinases that phosphorylate MAPKs, the MAP kinase kinases (MEKs) are also activated by phosphorylation.(More)
One Ras-dependent protein kinase cascade leading from growth factor receptors to the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinases) subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is dependent on the protein kinase Raf-1, which activates the MEK (MAPK or ERK kinase) dual specificity kinases. A second protein kinase cascade leading to activation of the(More)