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Inflammation clearly occurs in pathologically vulnerable regions of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, and it does so with the full complexity of local peripheral inflammatory responses. In the periphery, degenerating tissue and the deposition of highly insoluble abnormal materials are classical stimulants of inflammation. Likewise, in the AD brain damaged(More)
Inflammatory processes may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of the degenerative changes and cognitive impairments associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria was used to produce chronic, global inflammation within the brain of young rats. Chronic infusion of(More)
Memantine has been demonstrated to be safe and effective in the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). While the neurobiological basis for the therapeutic activity of memantine is not fully understood, the drug is not a cholinesterase inhibitor and, therefore, acts differently from current AD therapies. Memantine can interact with a variety of(More)
3-4-(2-Fluoro-alpha-methyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-acetyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-2-propenoic acid 4-nitrooxy butyl ester (NCX-2216), a nitric oxide (NO)-releasing derivative of the cyclooxygenase-1-preferring nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) flurbiprofen, dramatically reduced both beta-amyloid (Abeta) loads and Congo red staining in doubly transgenic(More)
The function of the cholinergic system is known to change during normal aging and in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. The present study was designed to assess, within the same group of old animals, the behavioral, electrophysiological and neurochemical effects of chronic treatment with agents that increase the function of the cholinergic(More)
OBJECTIVE Measures of cholinergic transmitter activity were investigated in patients with autism because of reported neuropathological abnormalities in cholinergic nuclei in the basal forebrain. METHOD Levels of cholinergic enzyme and receptor activity were measured in the frontal and parietal cerebral cortex of deceased autistic adults, similarly aged(More)
The brain mechanisms involved in attention and memory were examined by testing rats in temporal discriminations designed to emphasize these cognitive processes. Normal rats were able to time each of two stimuli whether they were presented alone or together. Rats with lesions of the frontal cortex (FC) or nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) were able to(More)
Biochemical markers for serotoninergic and catecholaminergic neurons in frontal and temporal poles were examined post mortem in brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and the two combined. Binding of [3H] citalopram to serotoninergic uptake sites and levels of serotonin were decreased by 40 to 50% in brains of persons in each(More)
Brain inflammation may have a pathogenic role in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic neuroinflammation upon anatomical changes in two regions of interest in the temporal lobe using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging techniques. We show that chronic infusion of(More)
  • G L Wenk
  • 1997
The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) contains a population of large cholinergic (Ch) neurons that send their axons to the entire cortical mantle, the olfactory bulbs, and the amygdala. This is the centennial anniversary of the first exact description of this nucleus by Von Kölliker, who named it in honor of its discoverer. This review will focus upon(More)