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This article describes and explains the moment arm vector (MAV) concept, uses the concept for the quantitative classification of hip muscles according to action, and applies the findings to selected clinical problems. A three-dimensional, straight-line model of hip musculature was used. Measurements made on a matched, dry bone specimen provided muscle(More)
Normalization of electromyographic (EMG) data has been described in the scientific literature as crucial for comparisons between subjects and between muscles. The reference value used in the normalization equation has, however, varied across reports. Comparison between studies could be facilitated by use of a common value. We propose the best way to select(More)
We examined muscle recruitment patterns in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and comparison children without CP under conditions of maximum voluntary contractions. Three groups of children participated in the study: (1) 12 children with diplegic CP (eight males, four females; age range 4-10 y, mean age 7 y [SD 2 y 4 mo]); (2) six children with hemiplegic CP(More)
The electromyographic (EMG) responses in postural (thigh and trunk) and agonist (shoulder) muscles were examined in standing parkinsonian subjects and healthy controls prior to visual reaction time and self-paced rapid arm flexion movements. Recruitment of postural muscles typically preceded arm displacement in normals, but was less frequent, of shorter(More)
This study was designed to determine whether children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed more co-activity than comparison children in non-prime mover muscles with regard to the prime mover during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of four lower-extremity muscles. Fourteen children with spastic diplegic CP (10 males, four females; age range 4-10y),(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the discharge characteristics of single motor-unit action potentials (SMUAPs) in young and aged subjects during 5, 10, and 20 percent of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of the abductor digiti minimi manus muscle. Three decades of aged subjects ranging from 60 to 90 years of age were compared with a(More)
We evaluated motor unit behaviour in young and aged subjects during ramped tension development and release to 10% maximum voluntary contraction requiring 10 seconds to complete. Six young and six elderly adults performed isometric abductor digiti minimi muscle contractions while motor units were recorded with implanted fine wire electrodes. Computer(More)
A method was designed to compare the effects of isometric contractions and passive stretch on modifying joint range of motion in 30 normal men. Subjects were randomly assigned into a control group, a passive stretch group, or an isometric contraction group. Each subject assumed a left sidelying position on the force table. Stabilization was applied to the(More)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the use of EMG as related to biomechanical function and dysfunction. The uses and limitations of this technique are described and instrumentation features and methods of data collection and interpretation are presented. We also discuss factors that influence the relationship of EMG to biomechanical measurements and(More)
Muscle length influences the contractile properties of muscle in that when muscle is lengthened the relaxation phase of the muscle twitch is prolonged and when muscle is shortened, the relaxation phase is shorter in duration. As a result, the force exerted by active motor units varies with muscle length during voluntary contractions. To determine if(More)