Gary K. Lofland

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OBJECTIVES We sought to determine factors that would predict whether a biventricular repair or Norwood procedure pathway would give the best survival in neonates with critical aortic stenosis. METHODS Survival and risk factors were determined with parametric time-dependent event analysis for patients undergoing either the Norwood procedure or(More)
OBJECTIVE We sought to define the prevalence of definitive end states and their determinants in children given a diagnosis of pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum during the neonatal period. METHODS Between 1987 and 1997, 408 neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum were entered into a prospective study by 33 institutions.(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to determine the demographic, anatomic, institutional, and surgical risk factors associated with outcomes after the Norwood operation. METHODS A total of 710 of 985 neonates with critical aortic stenosis or atresia enrolled in a prospective 29-institution study between 1994 and 2000 underwent the Norwood operation.(More)
OBJECTIVE Positive pressure ventilation is known to have a deleterious effect on pulmonary blood flow in patients with Fontan physiology. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects of pain free, spontaneous, non-positive pressure ventilation in patients undergoing Fontan staging procedures or completion. Fontan procedures, with creation of low pressure passive(More)
OBJECTIVE In critical left ventricular outflow tract obstruction, the common perception that biventricular physiology is superior to univentricular physiology has led to a bias favoring biventricular repair. We hypothesized that pursuit of biventricular repair in borderline candidates increases mortality. METHODS Between 1994 and 2001, 362 neonates with(More)
Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most commonly observed conotruncal congenital heart defect. Treatment of these patients has evolved dramatically in the last few decades, yet a genetic explanation is lacking for the failure of cardiac development for the majority of children with TOF. Our goal was to perform genome wide analyses and characterize expression(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with both interrupted aortic arch (IAA) and truncus arteriosus (TA) have worse outcomes than those with either lesion in isolation. We determined outcomes and associated factors in this rare group. METHODS From 1987 to 1997, 50 (11%) of 472 neonates with IAA were identified with TA. Site of aortic arch interruption was distal to the(More)
OBJECTIVE The juvenile sheep functional valve chronic implant calcification model was used to compare long-term calcification rates, functional performance, and durability for 3 types of right ventricular outflow tract implants: classically cryopreserved homografts and 2 decellularized pulmonary valved conduits. METHODS Fifteen juvenile sheep were(More)
BACKGROUND The importance of noncoding RNAs (ncRNA), especially microRNAs (miRNAs), for maintaining stability in the developing vertebrate heart has recently become apparent; however, there is little known about the expression pattern of ncRNA in the human heart with developmental anomalies. METHODS AND RESULTS We examined the expression of miRNAs and(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular rings are uncommon anomalies in which preferred strategies for diagnosis and treatment may vary among institutions. In this report, we offer a description of our approach and a review of our 25-year experience. METHODS A retrospective review was conducted of all pediatric patients with symptomatic tracheoesophageal compression(More)