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Growing experimental and clinical evidence supports the notion that the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops proceed along parallel circuits linking cortical and subcortical regions subserving the processing of sensorimotor, associative and affective tasks. In particular, there is evidence that a strict topographic segregation is maintained during(More)
The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) is the primary outcome measure in most clinical trials of Parkinson's disease (PD) therapeutics. Each subscore of the motor section (UPDRS III) compresses a wide range of motor performance into a coarse-grained scale from 0 to 4; the assessment of performance can also be subjective. Quantitative(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the peak temperature and thermal dose (T(43)) as tissue damage indicators for thermal therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS The proton resonant frequency (PRF) shift thermal coefficient was calibrated on six in vivo rabbit brains during interstitial laser ablation. The peak temperature and T(43) were correlated with the lesion boundary(More)
Power spectra from local field potentials (LFPs) recorded post-operatively from the deep brain stimulation (DBS) macroelectrode show prominence of the beta rhythm (11-30 Hz) in untreated Parkinson's disease (PD). Dopaminergic medication and movement attenuate this beta band in PD. In this pilot study of six sides in four patients, we recorded LFPs from the(More)
It is widely accepted that patients with Parkinson's disease experience immediate but temporary improvement in motor signs after surgical implantation of subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulating electrodes before the electrodes are activated, although this has never been formally studied. Based on anecdotal observations that limb mobility improved(More)
OBJECT The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key structure for motor control through the basal ganglia. The aim of this study was to show that the STN in patients with Parkinson disease (PD) has a somatotopic organization similar to that in nonhuman primates. METHODS A functional map of the STN was obtained using electrophysiological microrecording during(More)
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an accepted treatment of movement disorders, but little research on tissue changes induced by these devices has been made. We report findings of MRI signal changes in patients with unilateral DBS implantation and no clinically detectable symptoms. A retrospective review of preoperative stereotactic MRI scans for staged(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the production rate of CSF in patients with differing disease states. METHODS The authors measured the production rate of CSF in three groups of patients: five patients with PD below age 60 (aged 51 +/- 4 years, mean +/- SD), nine with PD over age 60 (aged 69 +/- 6 years, mean +/- SD), and seven with dementia of the Alzheimer's type(More)
OBJECT The goal of this study was to determine the effect of hydrocephalus on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production rates in patients with acute and chronic hydrocephalus. METHODS The authors studied CSF production both in patients presenting with acute and chronic hydrocephalus, and patients with Parkinson disease (PD) of a similar mean age, whose CSF(More)
Holmes tremor is characterized by resting, postural, and intention tremor. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of both the nucleus ventralis intermedius (Vim) and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) may be required to control these three tremor components. A 79-year-old man presented with a long-standing combination of resting, postural, and intention tremor, which was(More)