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Four Dlx homeobox genes, Dlx1, Dlx2, Dlx5, and Dlx6 are expressed in the same primordia of the mouse forebrain with temporally overlapping patterns. The four genes are organized as two tail-to-tail pairs, Dlx1/Dlx2 and Dlx5/Dlx6, a genomic arrangement conserved in distantly related vertebrates like zebrafish. The Dlx5/Dlx6 intergenic region contains two(More)
Distinct subtypes of cortical GABAergic interneurons provide inhibitory signals that are indispensable for neural network function. The Dlx homeobox genes have a central role in regulating their development and function. We have characterized the activity of three cis-regulatory sequences involved in forebrain expression of vertebrate Dlx genes: upstream(More)
Dlx homeobox genes of vertebrates are generally arranged as three bigene clusters on distinct chromosomes. The Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx5/Dlx6, and Dlx3/Dlx7 clusters likely originate from duplications of an ancestral Dlx gene pair. Overlaps in expression are often observed between genes from the different clusters. To determine if the overlaps are a result of the(More)
To understand the relationship between the expression and the genomic organization of the zebrafish dlx genes, we have determined the genomic structure of the dlx2 and dlx4 loci. This led to the identification of the zebrafish dlx1 and dlx6 genes, which are closely linked to dlx2 and dlx4, respectively. Therefore, the inverted convergent configuration of(More)
We have generated a line of transgenic zebrafish, Tg(dat:EGFP), in which the green fluorescent protein (GFP) is expressed under the control of cis-regulatory elements of the dopamine transporter (dat) gene. In Tg(dat:EGFP) fish, dopamine (DA) neurons are labeled with GFP, including those in ventral diencephalon (vDC) clusters, amacrine cells in the retina,(More)
Establishment of neuronal networks is an extremely complex process involving the interaction of a diversity of neuronal cells. During mammalian development, these highly organized networks are formed through the differentiation of multipotent neuronal progenitors into multiple neuronal cell lineages. In the developing forebrain of mammals, the combined(More)
Dlx homeobox genes play a crucial role in the migration and differentiation of the subpallial precursor cells that give rise to various subtypes of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-expressing neurons of the forebrain, including local-circuit cortical interneurons. Aberrant development of GABAergic interneurons has been linked to several neurodevelopmental(More)
West Nile Virus (WNV) infection has been reported in over 300 species of birds and mammals. Raptors such as eagles, hawks and falcons are remarkably susceptible, but reports of WNV infection in Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are rare and reports of WNV infection in grebes (Podicipediformes) even rarer. We report an unusually large wild bird(More)
Dlx homeobox genes encode a group of transcription factors that play an essential role during developmental processes including maintaining the differentiation, proliferation and migration of GABAergic interneurons. The Dlx1/2 and Dlx5/6 genes are expressed in the forebrain and are arranged in convergently transcribed bigene clusters, with I12a/I12b and(More)
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