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Study of the immune response to synthetic antigens has shown that uncoupled peptides can realize their potential as vaccines only if they contain domains that react with helper T-cell receptors and Ia antigens in addition to antibody binding sites. Here we consider whether genetically restricted non-responsiveness to an uncoupled peptide could be overcome(More)
Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy (FTIR DS) has been widely used to study the structural details of electron transfer cofactors (and their binding sites) in many types of photosynthetic protein complexes. This review focuses in particular on work that has been done to investigate the A₁cofactor in photosystem I photosynthetic reaction(More)
Chlorophyll a (Chl-a) is at the heart of solar energy capture and conversion in plants. Because of this, Chl-a has been the subject of innumerable studies. Recently, we have been able to use quantum mechanical methods to calculate the vibrational properties of neutral and oxidized Chl-a in the gas phase [Wang, R.; Parameswaran, S.; Hastings, G. Vib.(More)
Previously we have shown that ONIOM type (QM/MM) calculations can be used to simulate isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for neutral ubiquinone in the QA binding site in Rhodobacter sphaeroides photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we considerably extend upon this previous work by calculating isotope edited FTIR difference spectra for reaction centers(More)
Acaryochloris marina is an oxygen-evolving organism that utilizes chlorophyll-d for light induced photochemistry. In photosystem I particles from Acaryochloris marina, the primary electron donor is called P740, and it is thought that P740 consist of two chlorophyll-d molecules. (P740(+)-P740) FTIR difference spectra have been produced, and vibrational(More)
We recently reported the enhanced immunogenicity of a peptide epitope when it was presented as a fusion protein with hepatitis B core antigen. In those experiments the fusion protein was expressed in vaccinia virus. We have now refined the system so that large amounts of highly immunogenic particles can be produced using a simple bacterial expression(More)
Time-resolved visible and infrared absorption difference spectroscopy data at both 298 and 77 K were obtained using cyanobacterial menB (-) mutant photosystem I particles with several non-native quinones incorporated into the A1 binding site. Data was obtained for photosystem I particles with phylloquinone (2-methyl-3-phytyl-1,4-naphthoquinone),(More)
The primary electron donor of photosystem I (PS1), called P(700), is a heterodimer of chlorophyll (Chl) a and a'. The crystal structure of photosystem I reveals that the chlorophyll a' (P(A)) could be hydrogen-bonded to the protein via a threonine residue, while the chlorophyll a (P(B)) does not have such a hydrogen bond. To investigate the influence of(More)
Density functional theory has been used to calculate harmonic normal mode vibrational frequencies for unlabeled and isotope-labeled ubisemiquinones in both the gas phase and in several solvents. It is shown that four methoxy group conformations are likely to be present in solution at room temperature. Boltzmann weighted infrared and Raman spectra for the(More)
Transient absorption spectroscopy was used to study light induced electron transfer processes in Type 1 photosynthetic reaction centers. Flash induced absorption changes were probed at 800, 703 and 487 nm, and on multiple timescales from nanoseconds to tens of milliseconds. Both wild type and menB mutant photosystem I reaction centers from the(More)