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Parallel applications running across thousands of processors must protect themselves from inevitable system failures. Many applications insulate themselves from failures by checkpointing. For many applications, checkpointing into a shared single file is most convenient. With such an approach, the size of writes are often small and not aligned with file(More)
—The largest-scale high-performance (HPC) systems are stretching parallel file systems to their limits in terms of aggregate bandwidth and numbers of clients. To further sustain the scalability of these file systems, researchers and HPC storage architects are exploring various storage system designs. One proposed storage system design integrates a tier of(More)
The I/O bottleneck in high-performance computing is becoming worse as application data continues to grow. In this work, we explore how patterns of I/O within these applications can significantly affect the effectiveness of the underlying storage systems and how these same patterns can be utilized to improve many aspects of the I/O stack and mitigate the I/O(More)
High performance computing fault tolerance depends on scalable parallel file system performance. For more than a decade scalable bandwidth has been available from the object storage systems that underlie modern parallel file systems, and recently we have seen demonstrations of scalable parallel metadata using dynamic partitioning of the namespace over(More)
1. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of ouabain to rats induces motor hyper- and hypoactivity that have been hypothesized to model the mania and depression of bipolar illness, respectively. 2. The extent of ouabain-induced change in activity may vary according to the test environment. 3. To determine the degree of differential response to(More)
In the petascale era, the storage stack used by the extreme scale high performance computing community is fairly homogeneous across sites. On the compute edge of the stack, file system clients or IO forwarding services direct IO over an interconnect network to a relatively small set of IO nodes. These nodes forward the requests over a secondary storage(More)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a new I/O networking infrastructure, named PaScal (parallel and scalable I/O networking framework). PaScal is used to support high data bandwidth IP based global storage systems for large scale Linux clusters. PaScal has several unique properties. It employs (1) Multi-level switch-fabric interconnection(More)
BACKGROUND A decrease in sodium pump activity in erythrocytes has been associated with manic episodes of bipolar illness relative to euthymic moods. Since red blood cells are long-lived and lack a nucleus, it is likely that a plasma factor is responsible for the observed decrease in sodium pump activity. METHODS Utilizing a radioimmunoassay, we examined(More)