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BACKGROUND Studies showing that drugs that inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) reduce the number of colorectal adenomas in animals and patients with familial adenomatous polyposis suggest that COX-2 inhibitors may also prevent sporadic colorectal neoplasia. METHODS We randomly assigned patients who had adenomas removed before study entry to receive placebo(More)
We define two two-variable polynomials for rooted trees and one two-variable polynomial for unrooted trees, all of which are based on the corank-nullity formulation of the Tutte polynomial of a graph or matroid. For the rooted polynomials, we show that the polynomial completely determines the rooted tree, i.e., rooted trees TI and T, are isomorphic if and(More)
We consider a probabilistic antimatroid A on the ground set E, where each element e ∈ E may succeed with probability p e. We focus on the expected rank ER(A) of a subset of E as a polynomial in the p e. General formulas hold for arbitrary antimatroids, and simpler expressions are valid for certain well-studied classes, including trees, rooted trees, posets,(More)
Distinct epidemiological and clinicopathological characteristics of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) based on their anatomical location suggest different risk factors and pathways of transformation associated with proximal and distal colon carcinogenesis. These differences may reflect distinct biological characteristics of proximal and distal colonic mucosa,(More)
PURPOSE We conducted the first phase 0 clinical trial in oncology of a therapeutic agent under the Exploratory Investigational New Drug Guidance of the US Food and Drug Administration. It was a first-in-human study of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor ABT-888 in patients with advanced malignancies. PATIENTS AND METHODS ABT-888 was(More)
Many genes, with products involved in the protection of cells against carcinogens, oxidants, and other toxic chemicals, are under the transcriptional control of a simple DNA regulatory element [i.e., the antioxidant response element (ARE)]. One or more functional AREs have been confirmed or are believed to exist in the upstream region of many(More)
We define a two-variable polynomial fa(t, z) for a greedoid G which generalizes the standard one-variable greedoid polynomial A<j(f). Several greedoid invariants (including the number of feasible sets, bases, and spanning sets) are easily shown to be evaluations of fG(t, z). We prove (Theorem 2.8) that when G is a rooted directed arborescence, fo(t, z)(More)
When the edges in a tree or rooted tree fail with a certain fixed probability, the (greedoid) rank may drop. We compute the expected rank as a polynomial in p and as a real number under the assumption of uniform distribution. We obtain several different expressions for this expected rank polynomial for both trees and rooted trees, one of which is especially(More)
The greedoid Tutte polynomial of a tree is equivalent to a generating function that encodes information about the number of subtrees with I internal (non-leaf) edges and L leaf edges, for all I and L. We prove that this information does not uniquely determine the tree T by constructing an infinite family of pairs of non-isomorphic caterpillars, each pair(More)
PURPOSE Microtubules play a critical role in many cellular functions, including cell division and mitosis. ABT-751 is a novel sulfonamide antimitotic that binds to the colchicine site on beta-tubulin that leads to a block in the cell cycle at the G2M phase, resulting in cellular apoptosis. ABT-751 was investigated in this phase 1 trial designed to assess(More)