Learn More
Oxidation products of lipids, proteins, and DNA in the blood, plasma, and urine of rats were measured as part of a comprehensive, multilaboratory validation study searching for noninvasive biomarkers of oxidative stress. This article is the second report of the nationwide Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress Study using acute CCl4 poisoning as a rodent model for(More)
Cardiovascular disease is considered a probable risk factor of particulate matter (PM)-related mortality and morbidity. It was hypothesized that rats with hereditary systemic hypertension and underlying cardiac disease would be more susceptible than healthy normotensive rats to pulmonary injury from inhaled residual oil fly ash (ROFA) PM. Eight(More)
In an effort to improve risk assessments for ozone (O3) we compared the incorporation of inhaled oxygen-18-labeled O3 (18O3) into the lungs of humans and laboratory rats. Cells and fluids obtainable through bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) were examined after exposure to 18O3 to determine whether excess 18O concentrations (presumed to be reaction products of(More)
Acute ozone (O3) exposure in humans produces changes in pulmonary function that attenuate with repeated exposure. This phenomenon, termed adaptation, has been produced in unanesthetized rats. Rats exposed to O3 (0, 0.35, 0.5, or 1.0 ppm) for 2.25 h for 5 consecutive days showed an increased frequency of breathing and a decreased tidal volume on Days 1 and 2(More)
Inhalation of silicates induces a variety of lung diseases in humans. The molecular mechanism(s) by which these dusts cause disease is not known. Because several naturally occurring mineral oxides have large amounts of transition metal ions on their surfaces, we tested the hypothesis that surface complexation of iron may be an important determinant of their(More)
Epidemiology studies show association of morbidity and mortality with exposure to ambient air particulate matter (PM). Metals present in PM may catalyze oxidation of important lipids and proteins present in the lining of the respiratory tract. The present study investigated the PM-induced oxidation of human bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid (BALF) and(More)
Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a common indoor air pollutant, especially in homes with unvented combustion appliances. Epidemiological studies suggest that children living in homes with unvented heating sources are more prone to respiratory infections than children living in homes with lower levels of NO2. However, experimental studies in which human volunteers(More)
The evaluation of respiratory tract toxicity from airborne materials frequently involves exposure of animals via inhalation. This provides a natural route of entry into the host and, as such, is the preferred method for the introduction of toxicants into the lungs. However, for various reasons, this technique cannot always be used, and the direct(More)
The ability of particulate air pollutants (and possible constituents) to alter pulmonary host defenses was examined using an in vitro alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity assay and an in vivo bacterial infectivity screening test which employed intratracheal injection of the particles. A wide range of response between particles was seen at the 1.0-mg/ml level in(More)
A comparison of the concentration-response effects of inhaled ozone (O3) and phosgene (COCl2) in different species of laboratory animals was made in order to better understand the influence of the choice of species in inhalation toxicity studies. The effect of 4-h exposures to ozone at concentrations of 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ppm, and to COCl2 and 0.1, 0.2,(More)