Learn More
During the 1989 corn harvest season, numerous reports of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) outbreaks and a pulmonary edema (PPE) syndrome in swine from several regions of the United States were received by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL), Ames, Iowa. Previous and concurrent research linked Fusarium moniliforme and(More)
During the fall of 1989, an episode of equine leukoencephalomalacia involved 18 of 66 purebred Arabian horses at a breeding/training stable in Arizona. Of the 18 horses affected, the condition was fatal in 14. These horses, as well as 48 unaffected horses, had been fed a diet containing a substantial amount of white corn screenings. Gross pathologic(More)
Ninety-eight samples of feeds associated with 44 cases of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) and 83 samples of feed associated with 42 cases of a porcine pulmonary edema syndrome (PPE) were analyzed for fumonisin B1 (FB1). For comparison purposes, 51 feed samples not associated with PPE or ELEM were also analyzed. Feed associated with ELEM contained FB1(More)
Fumonisins are myocotoxins produced by Fusarium moniliforme and F. proliferatum, common molds of corn in North America. The toxin is at especially high concentrations in corn screenings. Fumonisins are toxic to swine and horses, but effects of these toxins in cattle have not been evaluated. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects in cattle of(More)
In 1989, corn screenings were associated with acute interstitial pulmonary edema, hydrothorax, and death in swine. Attack rate was 5-50%, case fatality rate was 50-90%, and clinical course was 1-2 days. Screenings from farms with pigs affected with pulmonary edema contained 20-330 micrograms fumonisin B1 per gram. Screenings containing 92 micrograms(More)
Aflatoxicosis was diagnosed in lightweight feedlot cattle fed aflatoxin-contaminated cottonseed or gin trash. Clinical signs of hepatic damage and death were recorded for more than 200 of the 14,000 animals in a feedlot. Aflatoxin concentration in feedlot products fed to these cattle ranged from 96 to 1,700 ng/g. Diagnosis was based on the correlation of(More)
Ninety-nine sexually mature, non-pregnant gilts were checked for estrus daily with a mature boar and then allocated at estrus (D O) to receive 2 kg/d of a diet containing 0, 1, 5 or 10 ppm purified zearalenone between D 5 and 20 of the estrous cycle during two seasons of the year (winter and summer). None of the gilts exhibited any visual signs of(More)
Fumonisin B1 (FB1) and FB2 were isolated from corn cultures of both Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium proliferatum. Respective concentrations in culture materials of FB1 and FB2 ranged from 960 to 2,350 and 120 to 320 micrograms/g for F. moniliforme and from 1,670 to 2,790 and 150 to 320 micrograms/g for F. proliferatum. Thin-layer chromatography, gas(More)
During the fall of 1989 and winter of 1990, numerous reports of equine leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM) occurred from many regions of the United States. Typically, horses were consuming feed partially or entirely composed of corn and/or corn screenings. From October 1989 through May 1990, samples from 55 confirmed or suspected ELEM cases were received at the(More)
Thirty female beagle dogs, 7 to 8 months old, were assigned to five groups. Control, low dosage, medium dosage, high dosage, and pair-fed groups were offered 0, 1, 2, 4 and 0 mg of sodium arsenite per killigram of body weight per day (mg/kg/day), respectively, in their feed. On Day 59, the dosage was doubled for the rest of the experiment, which ended on(More)