Gary D. Byrd

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A cryogenic trapping method with isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis has been developed for the determination of benzene, toluene, styrene and acrylonitrile in mainstream vapor phase cigarette smoke. The method is simple, direct, and quantitative. Vapor phase samples are collected cryogenically in a series of four traps following(More)
Urinary nicotine metabolic output was profiled for 11 smokers who smoked their regular cigarette brands ad libitum. Thermospray liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to monitor nicotine and eight metabolites, including glucuronide conjugates of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine that were determined indirectly using enzyme(More)
Renal excretion mechanisms are xenobiotic-specific; therefore, accurate exposure assessment requires an understanding of relationships of xenobiotic biomarker concentration and excretion rate to urine flow, specific gravity and creatinine concentration. Twenty-four-hour urine collection for xenobiotic exposure assessment is considered the "gold standard"(More)
A simple, rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed to identify and quantitate in human urine the isoprostanes iPF(2 alpha)-III, 15-epi-iPF(2 alpha)-III, iPF(2 alpha)-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF(2 alpha)-VI along with the prostaglandin PGF(2 alpha) and 2,3-dinor-iPF(2 alpha)-III, a metabolite of iPF(2 alpha)-III. Assay specificity,(More)
A thermospray liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric method has been developed for direct determination of cotinine-N-glucuronide in the urine of smokers. Quantification was performed using methyl-d3-cotinine-N-glucuronide as internal standard and monitoring the protonated aglycons. Using a simple preparation, urine samples from four smokers were(More)
Recent studies in our laboratories have confirmed that a major unidentified metabolite of nicotine in smokers' urine was susceptible to enzymatic degradation by beta-glucuronidase to afford (S)-(-)-cotinine. In order to establish the identity of this metabolite, the quaternary ammonium conjugate, viz., (S)-(-)-cotinine N-glucuronide, was synthesized.(More)
The development and validation of a rapid liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) method for determination of nicotine and cotinine in smokers' serum is described. The method is based on solid-phase extraction in a 96-well plate format and requires only 100 microL of serum. Using normal-phase chromatography, both analytes elute in less(More)
OBJECTIVE This study was undertaken to determine if a systematic review of the evidence from thirty years of literature evaluating clinical medical librarian (CML) programs could help clarify the effectiveness of this outreach service model. METHODS A descriptive review of the CML literature describes the general characteristics of these services as they(More)
Poison frogs sequester chemical defenses from arthropod prey, although the details of how arthropod diversity contributes to variation in poison frog toxins remains unclear. We characterized skin alkaloid profiles in the Little Devil poison frog, Oophaga sylvatica (Dendrobatidae), across three populations in northwestern Ecuador. Using gas(More)