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Silvopastoral models require the development of the relationship between understorey pasture production, and the overstorey tree production. The Tikitere agroforestry trial, located near Rotorua in the Bay of Plenty, was established in Pinus radiata at a range of stockings in 1973, and monitored for stand parameters, understorey pasture production, and(More)
Mammalian spermatogenesis involves formation of haploid cells from the male germline and then a complex morphological transformation to generate motile sperm. Focusing on meiotic prophase, some tissue-specific transcription factors are known (A-MYB) or suspected (RFX2) to play important roles in modulating gene expression in pachytene spermatocytes. The(More)
H1t is a novel linker histone variant synthesized in mid- to late pachytene spermatocytes. Its regulatory region is of interest because developmentally specific expression has been impressed on an otherwise ubiquitously expressed promoter. Using competitive band-shift assays and specific antisera, we have now shown that the H1t-60 CCTAGG palindrome motif(More)
H1t is an H1 histone variant unique to late spermatocytes and early spermatids. Using gene targeting and embryonic stem cell technologies, we have produced mice with a disrupted H1t gene. Homozygous H1t-null mice have normal fertility and show no obvious phenotypic consequence due to the lack of this histone. Biochemical and immunohistochemical approaches(More)
Because of their prominent roles in regulation of gene expression, it is important to understand how levels of Krüpple-like transcription factors SP1 and SP3 change in germ cells during spermatogenesis. Using immunological techniques, we found that both factors decreased sharply during meiosis. SP3 declined during the leptotene-to-pachytene transition,(More)
The regulatory factor X (RFX) family of transcription factors has been recently implicated in gene regulation during spermatogenesis. However, the relative expression of individual members during this developmental process is not completely characterized, particularly in the case of Rfx4, which has multiple transcript variants in the testis. We used reverse(More)
Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master transcription factor that controls the basal and inducible expression of a battery of antioxidant genes and other cytoprotective phase II detoxifying enzymes. While knockout of Nrf2 exaggerates cardiac pathological remodeling and dysfunction in diverse pathological settings, pharmacological(More)
In some cases core histone genes in the mouse depend on intragenic sequence elements for high level expression [Gene 176 (1996) 1]. Here we report that the highly expressed gene for rat linker histone H1d also contains an intragenic activating region (IAR). Using transient transfection assays in mouse fibroblast NIH3T3 cells, we showed that rat H1d contains(More)
The ability of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to tolerate various amino acid insertions near its carboxy terminus is well-known. Typically these inserts are based on antigenic sequences for vaccine development with plant viruses as carriers. However, we determined that the structural symmetries and the size range of the viruses could also be modeled to mimic(More)
Viruses are monodispersed biomacromolecules with well-defined 3-D structures at the nanometer level. The relative ease to manipulate viral coat protein gene to display numerous functional groups affords an attractive feature for these nanomaterials, and the inability of plant viruses to infect mammalian hosts poses little or no cytotoxic concerns. As such,(More)