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Prolonged use of video display terminals (VDTs) has been shown to be a risk factor for musculoskeletal and visual discomfort. A standard workplace design recommendation is to position the centre of the VDT 15 degrees below horizontal eye level. Recently a viewing angle of 40 degrees below horizontal has been suggested based on studies that have indicated(More)
Biomechanical models of the spine have traditionally assumed that workplace lifting conditions (weight, posture, motion, etc.) precisely dictate the magnitude of individual muscle forces necessary to maintain a biomechanical balance within the trunk. However, because there are a large number of muscle groups within the trunk there is also an infinite number(More)
Appropriate visual display terminal (VDT) location is a subject of ongoing debate. Generally, visual strain is associated with higher placement, and musculoskeletal strain is associated with lower placement. Seeking resolution of the debate, this paper provides a comparison of results from previous lab-based monitor placement studies to recommendations and(More)
Electromyography (EMG) and normalized EMG have been accepted as methods of quantifying the activity level of a muscle. Normalized EMG, in conjunction with the EMG/force relationship and muscle cross-sectional area data, allows researchers to estimate the amount of muscle force exerted across a joint. An accurate description of this muscle force is a(More)
An experiment was performed to determine the reaction of the trunk muscles, using electromyography, and intra-abdominal pressure to components of trunk loading commonly seen in the workplace during manual materials handling. These components included angular trunk velocity, trunk position in three-dimensional space and trunk torque exertion level. The(More)
Repetitive, high-force pinch grip exertions are common in many occupational activities. The goal of the current study was to quantify the relationship between lateral pinch grip span (distance between thumb and index finger) and lateral pinch grip strength. An experiment was conducted in which 40 participants performed maximal lateral pinch grip exertions(More)
Industrial assembly tasks often require awkward, sustained neck and/or shoulder postures that can lead to increased musculoskeletal discomfort and reduced productivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror and periscope visual aids as ergonomic interventions designed to eliminate awkward postures of the cervicobrachial region(More)
An understanding of how the support mechanisms of the spine behave during lifting may yield insight into the loading of the spine under occupational conditions and help shed light on the etiology of low-back disorders. Previous controlled laboratory studies of spinal loadings have been limited to isometric and isokinetic conditions. To evaluate the behavior(More)
The effect of warning time (preview) and task symmetry on the trunk muscular response to sudden loading conditions was investigated. Eleven subjects were asked to catch falling weights with four levels of preview (0, 100, 200, and 400 ms) in saggitally symmetric posture and asymmetric posture. For each of the eight muscles sampled with surface electrodes,(More)
BACKGROUND Full flexion lumbar postures maintained over a prolonged period of time have been shown to lead to changes in the supporting passive structures of the spine and it has been hypothesized that this may lead to low back pain/disorders. However, the specific biomechanics and physiology of this link have not been fully developed. Of particular(More)