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In recent years there have been a number of studies of decision making in naturalistic environments such as nuclear power plants, urban fire departments, command-and-control centers, and courtrooms. These studies provide a different perspective on decision strategies from laboratory studies that rely on naive subjects performing relatively context-free(More)
Planning under conditions of uncertainty, time pressure, and other stressors is a complex cognitive activity for military command post staff members. The Army and the Marine Corps have developed formal planning models intended as step-by-step guides. However, these models are inconsistent with the actual strategies of skilled planners, and they slow down(More)
Comparability studies are an engineering procedure that uses similar equipment as a basis for predicting features of equipment still in the design stage. Interviews with engineers who have performed comparability studies, and analysis of the reports prepared, showed patterns of inference that could not fit any existing account of reasoning by analogy. The(More)