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A parafoveally presented letter is more accurately identified when flanked by a letter to its foveal side than when flanked by one to its peripheral side, but only if the two letters are nonconfusable. With confusable letters there is no such relative position effect. Four experiments indicated that the basis for this confusability-asymmetry interaction is(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR), first described in 1984, was considered to be a general phenomenon for ensuring that attention would be allocated to successive stimuli in the environment. In the present research, IOR was expressed in forced-choice identification tasks with either reaction time or accuracy as the dependent measure. Thus, the generality of IOR(More)
Large differences between the time course of attentional responsiveness to onset single-element precues (onset singles) and to onset multiple-element precues (onset multiples) have suggested differences in the way attention is controlled. In five experiments here, singles presented as offsets produced rapid attention buildup, attentional decay across longer(More)
Alcohol affects several neurotransmitter systems within the brain. In this article, the author describes its effects on 5 major ones: glutamate, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems. The author also notes the interactions and interdependencies of these transmitters, and provides details on both immediate effects and(More)
Three experiments were conducted in order to determine whether irrelevant items presented outside the focus of attention would affect the identification of a precued target. A peripheral cue indicated one of eight possible locations in a circular array, centered on fixation with a radius of 5.25 degrees. After a variable interval (0-200 msec), eight(More)
The effect of nontargets on the identification of targets in the location-cuing paradigm was investigated in order to determine whether observers consistently allocate their attention to a validly cued location and whether the effect of nontargets is to facilitate or to inhibit performance. In four experiments, the effects of a single matching nontarget or(More)