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Two discrimination experiments were run to investigate analog versus discrete properties of a shift of visual spatial attention. Central cuing was used in Experiment 1, whereas peripheral cuing was used in Experiment 2. Presentation of a probe stimulus between fixation and the target (Distance 1), opposite fixation from the target (Distance 3), or away from(More)
  • G Chastain
  • 1985
A parafoveally presented letter is more accurately identified when flanked by a letter to its foveal side than when flanked by one to its peripheral side, but only if the two letters are nonconfusable. With confusable letters there is no such relative position effect. Four experiments indicated that the basis for this confusability-asymmetry interaction is(More)
Shifting visual attention is often described as analogous to a spotlight moving through empty space between locations. In the present experiment, a peripheral precue summoned attention to an initial location, and 200 ms later a second peripheral cue appeared beside one of two possible second locations, each 14 degrees away from the initial location. The(More)
Inhibition of return (IOR), first described in 1984, was considered to be a general phenomenon for ensuring that attention would be allocated to successive stimuli in the environment. In the present research, IOR was expressed in forced-choice identification tasks with either reaction time or accuracy as the dependent measure. Thus, the generality of IOR(More)
Large differences between the time course of attentional responsiveness to onset single-element precues (onset singles) and to onset multiple-element precues (onset multiples) have suggested differences in the way attention is controlled. In five experiments here, singles presented as offsets produced rapid attention buildup, attentional decay across longer(More)
Alcohol affects several neurotransmitter systems within the brain. In this article, the author describes its effects on 5 major ones: glutamate, gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), dopamine, serotonin, and opioid systems. The author also notes the interactions and interdependencies of these transmitters, and provides details on both immediate effects and(More)