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Estrogens are hormones that modulate a diverse array of effects during development and adulthood. The effects of estrogen are mediated by two estrogen receptor (ER) isotypes, ERalpha and ERbeta, which classically function as transcription factors to modulate specific target gene expression and in addition regulate a growing list of intracellular signaling(More)
Endocannabinoids are lipid molecules that serve as natural ligands for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2. They modulate a diverse set of physiological processes such as pain, cognition, appetite, and emotional states, and their levels and functions are tightly regulated by enzymatic biosynthesis and degradation. 2-Arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) is the most(More)
Several recent reports have demonstrated a role for selective cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonists in pain modulation, showing both analgesic and antihyperalgesic activities. While the mechanism of action is poorly understood, it has been postulated that these effects may be indirect, involving release of endogenous opioids. We have previously reported that(More)
Transfection and subsequent expression of DNA in living neuronal tissue is problematic and no technique has emerged that is completely non-damaging, efficient and reproducible. The Bio-Rad hand-held Gene Gun has overcome some of these problems by exploiting a biolistic method in which small gold particles carrying plasmid DNA are propelled into neurons(More)
To date, two cannabinoid receptors have been identified, CB1 and CB2. Activation of these receptors with non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonists reduces pain sensitivity in animals and humans. However, activation of CB1 receptors is also associated with central side effects, including ataxia and catalepsy. More recently, a role for selective CB2(More)
Endocannabinoids (eCBs) function as retrograde signaling molecules at synapses throughout the brain, regulate axonal growth and guidance during development, and drive adult neurogenesis. There remains a lack of genetic evidence as to the identity of the enzyme(s) responsible for the synthesis of eCBs in the brain. Diacylglycerol lipase-alpha (DAGLalpha) and(More)
The aims of this study were to investigate the occurrence of apoptotic cell death in the dorsal horn of the adult rat spinal cord following chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve and to correlate this with behavioural responses. Six groups of six rats were used as follows: 1) CCI, 2) CCI, 3) MK801 + CCI, 4) axotomy, 5) sham, and 6) naive.(More)
The endocannabinoid system consists of the cannabinoid (CB) receptors, CB(1) and CB(2), the endogenous ligands anandamide (AEA, arachidonoylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and their synthetic and metabolic machinery. The use of cannabis has been described in classical and recent literature for the treatment of pain, but the potential for(More)
The effect of A-317491 (5-([(3-Phenoxybenzyl)[(1S)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]amino]carbonyl)-1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic acid), a recently described selective P2X3 and P2X(2/3) receptor antagonist, on inflammatory mechanical hyperalgesia was examined. In the rat Freund's complete adjuvant model of inflammatory pain, s.c. administration of A-317491(More)
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) plays a major role in controlling the body's response to stress. Because painful conditions are inherently stressful, we hypothesize that CRF may act via CRF-1 receptors to contribute to the pain experience. Studies were designed to investigate whether blocking CRF-1 receptors with selective antagonists or reducing their(More)