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Complementary approaches were employed to characterize transitional episodes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development using direct observation and whole-cell protein analysis. Microscopy and in situ reporter gene analysis were used to directly observe changes in biofilm physiology and to act as signposts to standardize protein collection for(More)
Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare, early-onset genetic disorder characterized by epigastric pain and often more serious complications. We now report that an Arg-His substitution at residue 117 of the cationic trypsinogen gene is associated with the HP phenotype. This mutation was observed in all HP affected individuals and obligate carriers from five(More)
CONTEXT Chronic otitis media (OM) is a common pediatric infectious disease. Previous studies demonstrating that metabolically active bacteria exist in culture-negative pediatric middle-ear effusions and that experimental infection with Haemophilus influenzae in the chinchilla model of otitis media results in the formation of adherent mucosal biofilms(More)
The detection and identification of bacteria present in natural and industrial ecosystems is now entirely based on molecular systems that detect microbial RNA or DNA. Culture methods were abandoned, in the 1980s, because direct observations showed that <1% of the bacteria in these systems grew on laboratory media. Culture methods comprise the backbone of(More)
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE Scars form as wounds heal in adult organisms. In addition to disrupting cosmetic appearance, scar tissue can cause significant morbidity, and even death if it blocks vital organ function. Previous work has established that fetal wounds, especially in early to midgestation, can heal without scarring. Because such inherent physiological(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We recently identified a single R117H mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene in several kindreds with an inherited form of acute and chronic pancreatitis (HP1), providing strong evidence that trypsin plays a central role in premature zymogen activation and pancreatitis. However, not all families studied have this mutation. The aim of(More)
Unequivocal direct observations have established that the bacteria that cause device-related and other chronic infections grow in matrix-enclosed biofilms. The diagnostic and therapeutic strategies that have served us so well in the partial eradication of acute epidemic bacterial diseases have not yielded accurate data or favorable outcomes when applied to(More)
CONTEXT Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has not previously been widely regarded as a hereditary disease. A few reports have suggested, however, that a genetic component may contribute to the incidence of GER, especially in its severe or chronic forms. OBJECTIVE To identify a genetic locus that cosegregates with a severe pediatric GER phenotype in families(More)
Bacterial biofilms have recently been shown to be important in neurosurgical device-related infections. Because the concept of biofilms is novel to most practitioners, it is important to understand that both traditional pharmaceutical therapies and host defense mechanisms that are aimed at treating or overcoming free-swimming bacteria are largely(More)
The role of oxygen limitation in protecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains growing in biofilms from killing by antibiotics was investigated in vitro. Bacteria in mature (48-h-old) colony biofilms were poorly killed when they were exposed to tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, carbenicillin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, or tetracycline for 12 h. It was shown with(More)