Complementary approaches were employed to characterize transitional episodes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development using direct observation and whole-cell protein analysis. Microscopy and in situ reporter gene analysis were used to directly observe changes in biofilm physiology and to act as signposts to standardize protein collection for… (More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is one of the most important causes of microbial diseases in humans. The genomes of 44 diverse strains of S. pneumoniae were analyzed and compared with strains of non-pathogenic streptococci of the Mitis group. RESULTS Despite evidence of extensive recombination, the S. pneumoniae phylogenetic tree revealed six major… (More)
Marine sediments are frequently covered by mats of the filamentous Beggiatoa and other large nitrate-storing bacteria that oxidize hydrogen sulfide using either oxygen or nitrate, which they store in intracellular vacuoles. Despite their conspicuous metabolic properties and their biogeochemical importance, little is known about their genetic repertoire… (More)
BACKGROUND The nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) are associated with a spectrum of respiratory mucosal infections including: acute otitis media (AOM); chronic otitis media with effusion (COME); otorrhea; locally invasive diseases such as mastoiditis; as well as a range of systemic disease states, suggesting a wide range of virulence phenotypes.… (More)
Originally isolated from a pediatric patient with otitis media, Haemophilus influenzae strain 375 (Hi375) has been extensively studied as a model system for intracellular invasion of airway epithelial cells and other pathogenesis traits. Here, we report its complete genome sequence and methylome.
BACKGROUND Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) colonizes the human respiratory tract and is an important pathogen associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Bacterial factors that interact with the human host may be important in the pathogenesis of COPD. These factors, however, have not been well defined. The overall goal of this study was to… (More)
The distributed-genome hypothesis (DGH) states that pathogenic bacteria possess a supragenome that is much larger than the genome of any single bacterium and that these pathogens utilize genetic recombination and a large, noncore set of genes as a means of diversity generation. We sequenced the genomes of eight nasopharyngeal strains of Streptococcus… (More)
Although there is tremendous interest in understanding the evolutionary roles of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) processes that occur during chronic polyclonal infections, to date there have been few studies that directly address this topic. We have characterized multiple HGT events that most likely occurred during polyclonal infection among nasopharyngeal… (More)
BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common respiratory pathogen and a major causative agent of respiratory infections, including otitis media (OM). Pneumococcal biofilms have been demonstrated on biopsies of the middle ear mucosa in children receiving tympanostomy tubes, supporting the hypothesis that chronic OM may involve biofilm development by… (More)
Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.