Garry L Morefield

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An important step in the induction of an immune response to vaccines is the internalization of antigens by antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). Many current vaccines are formulated with antigens adsorbed to an aluminum-containing adjuvant. Following injection of the vaccine the antigens may either elute or stay adsorbed to the adjuvant(More)
The development of new protein subunit vaccines has stimulated the search for improved adjuvants to replace traditional aluminum-containing products. We investigated the adjuvant effects of a synthetic Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist on vaccine efficacy in an experimental model of toxic shock syndrome. The TLR4 agonist E6020 has a simplified structure(More)
The phosphate content of commercial ovalbumin was increased from 1.8 to 3.2 mol PO(4)/mol ovalbumin by conjugation of phosphoserine and reduced to 1.2 or 0.14 mol PO(4)/mol ovalbumin by treatment with potato acid phosphatase. The four ovalbumin samples were completely adsorbed by aluminum hydroxide adjuvant due to electrostatic attraction of the negatively(More)
BACKGROUND Combination vaccines reduce the total number of injections required for each component administered separately and generally provide the same level of disease protection. Yet, physical, chemical, and biological interactions between vaccine components are often detrimental to vaccine safety or efficacy. METHODS As a possible alternative to(More)
Six aluminum hydroxide adjuvants, poorly crystalline aluminum oxyhydroxide (AlOOH) were prepared using different thermal treatments of amorphous aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) in an effort to increase the protein adsorption capacity. All of the adjuvants initially exhibited a higher protein adsorption capacity. However, the protein adsorption capacity(More)
Diseases resulting from infection by group A streptococcus (GAS) are an increasing burden on global health. A novel vaccine was developed targeting infection by Streptococcus pyogenes. The vaccine incorporates a recombinant fusion protein antigen (SpeAB) which was engineered by combining inactive mutant forms of streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA) and(More)
A recombinant vaccine composed of a fusion protein formulated with aluminum hydroxide adjuvant is under development for protection against diseases caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. The safety and local reactogenicity of the vaccine was assessed by a comprehensive series of clinical, pathologic and immunologic tests in preclinical experiments. Outbred mice(More)
With the continuous emergence of new infectious diseases and new strains of current diseases, such as the novel H1N1 influenza in 2009, in combination with expanding competition in the vaccine marketplace, the pressure to develop vaccine formulations right the first time is increasing. As vaccines are complex, costly, and have high risk associated with(More)
The distribution of alpha-casein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), myoglobin and recombinant protective antigen (rPA) in mono-valent and combination vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide adjuvant was studied by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Green and red fluorescent probes were conjugated to the antigens. Adsorption isotherms of the fluorescently(More)
The objective of this research was to determine how the mechanism by which antigens adsorb to aluminum-containing adjuvants affects the elution upon exposure to interstitial fluid. Antigens (alpha lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, lysozyme and myoglobin) that adsorb to aluminum-containing adjuvants principally by electrostatic attraction were found to(More)