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The 2A/2B cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2A polyproteins is mediated by their 2A proteins 'cleaving' at their own C termini. We have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) -- forming a single, long, open(More)
2A is an oligopeptide sequence mediating a ribosome 'skipping' effect, producing an apparent 'cleavage' of polyproteins. First identified and characterized in picornaviruses, '2A-like' sequences are found in other mammalian viruses and a wide range of insect viruses. Databases were analysed using a motif conserved amongst 2A/2A-like sequences. The newly(More)
The 2A region of the aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) polyprotein is only 18 aa long. A 'primary' intramolecular polyprotein processing event mediated by 2A occurs at its own C terminus. FMDV 2A activity was studied in artificial polyproteins in which sequences encoding reporter proteins flanked the 2A sequence such that a single, long, open(More)
Many applications of genetic engineering require transformation with multiple (trans)genes, although to achieve these using conventional techniques can be challenging. The 2A oligopeptide is emerging as a highly effective new tool for the facile co-expression of multiple proteins in a single transformation step, whereby a gene encoding multiple proteins,(More)
Where 2A oligopeptide sequences occur within ORFs, the formation of the glycyl-prolyl peptide bond at the C-terminus of (each) 2A does not occur. This property can be used to concatenate sequences encoding several proteins into a single ORF: each component of such an artificial polyprotein is generated as a discrete translation product. 2A and '2A-like'(More)
The study of replication of viruses that require high bio-secure facilities can be accomplished with less stringent containment using non-infectious 'replicon' systems. The FMDV replicon system (pT7rep) reported by Mclnerney et al. (2000) was modified by the replacement of sequences encoding chloramphenicol acetyl-transferase (CAT) with those encoding a(More)
The heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a diverse subset of molecular chaperones that generally promote the proper folding of proteins after translation and also prevent their aggregation during cellular stress. Paradoxically, cellular chaperones might perform important antiviral functions for host cells, yet, at the same time, might be beneficial for virus(More)
2A oligopeptide sequences ("2As") mediate a cotranslational recoding event termed "ribosome skipping." Previously we demonstrated the activity of 2As (and "2A-like sequences") within a wide range of animal RNA virus genomes and non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons (non-LTRs) in the genomes of the unicellular organisms Trypanosoma brucei (Ingi) and T.(More)
The aim of this project was to develop an analytical procedure with the required level of sensitivity for the determination of glucose concentrations in small volumes of unstimulated fasting whole saliva. The technique involves high-performance ion-exchange chromatography at high pH and pulsed amperometric detection. It has a high level of reproducibility,(More)
The 2A region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) encodes a short sequence that mediates self-processing by a novel translational effect. Translation elongation arrest leads to release of the nascent polypeptide and re-initiation at the next in-frame codon. In this way discrete translation products are derived from a single open reading frame. Active(More)