Garry A. Luke

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The 2A/2B cleavage of aphtho- and cardiovirus 2A polyproteins is mediated by their 2A proteins 'cleaving' at their own C termini. We have analysed this activity using artificial reporter polyprotein systems comprising green fluorescent protein (GFP) linked via foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) -- forming a single, long, open(More)
The 2A region of the aphthovirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) polyprotein is only 18 aa long. A 'primary' intramolecular polyprotein processing event mediated by 2A occurs at its own C terminus. FMDV 2A activity was studied in artificial polyproteins in which sequences encoding reporter proteins flanked the 2A sequence such that a single, long, open(More)
Many applications of genetic engineering require transformation with multiple (trans)genes, although to achieve these using conventional techniques can be challenging. The 2A oligopeptide is emerging as a highly effective new tool for the facile co-expression of multiple proteins in a single transformation step, whereby a gene encoding multiple proteins,(More)
The role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the control of blood pressure and drinking was investigated in fresh water (FW)- and seawater (SW)-adapted eels, Anguilla anguilla, by comparing the effects of pharmacological manipulation through the use of papaverine (stimulator) and captopril (inhibitor) on the endogenous system. In SW eels basal blood(More)
2A is an oligopeptide sequence mediating a ribosome 'skipping' effect, producing an apparent 'cleavage' of polyproteins. First identified and characterized in picornaviruses, '2A-like' sequences are found in other mammalian viruses and a wide range of insect viruses. Databases were analysed using a motif conserved amongst 2A/2A-like sequences. The newly(More)
Where 2A oligopeptide sequences occur within ORFs, the formation of the glycyl-prolyl peptide bond at the C-terminus of (each) 2A does not occur. This property can be used to concatenate sequences encoding several proteins into a single ORF: each component of such an artificial polyprotein is generated as a discrete translation product. 2A and '2A-like'(More)
The heat shock proteins (Hsps) are a diverse subset of molecular chaperones that generally promote the proper folding of proteins after translation and also prevent their aggregation during cellular stress. Paradoxically, cellular chaperones might perform important antiviral functions for host cells, yet, at the same time, might be beneficial for virus(More)
The aetiology of dental caries is in part related to the retention time of dietary carbohydrates in the oral cavity and their subsequent metabolism by the oral bacteria. Salivary clearance of fermentable carbohydrates from three different foodstuffs was examined in 5 subjects and analyses performed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with(More)
The 2A region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) encodes a short sequence that mediates self-processing by a novel translational effect. Translation elongation arrest leads to release of the nascent polypeptide and re-initiation at the next in-frame codon. In this way discrete translation products are derived from a single open reading frame. Active(More)
Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) was used to investigate the distribution of P2 proteins in host cells and examine the effect of amino acid substitutions in conserved residues of the 2C protein on virus growth. The distribution of viral proteins 2B, 2C and 2BC with marker proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or Golgi suggest an(More)