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Understanding how the immune system decides between tolerance and activation by antigens requires addressing cytokine regulation as a highly dynamic process. We quantified the dynamics of interleukin-2 (IL-2) signaling in a population of T cells during an immune response by combining in silico modeling and single-cell measurements in vitro. We demonstrate(More)
So far, hepatitis B virus cannot be grown in tissue cultures. Consequently, the inactivating effect of disinfectants upon the infectivity of hepatitis B virus could only be insufficiently investigated. Investigations using the only suitable test animal, the chimpanzee, are associated with substantial efforts and high cost and are also limited in their(More)
Isolation of a viral agent (107) directly from brain explants of a 15-month-old heifer with symptoms of a sporadic encephalomyelitis is described. The virus shares properties with the paramyxovirus family. It grows in a variety of cell cultures from different species, and induces nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in infected cells. Nucleocapsids(More)
The primary activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has become a prominent target for molecular therapies against several forms of cancer. But despite considerable progress during the last years, many of its aspects remain poorly understood. Experiments on lateral spreading of receptor activity into ligand-free regions challenge the(More)
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