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A common trend in object recognition is to detect and leverage the use of sparse, informative feature points. The use of such features makes the problem more manageable while providing increased robustness to noise and pose variation. In this work we develop an extension of these ideas to the spatio­temporal case. For this purpose, we show that the direct(More)
We propose a definition of saliency by considering what the visual system is trying to optimize when directing attention. The resulting model is a Bayesian framework from which bottom-up saliency emerges naturally as the self-information of visual features, and overall saliency (incorporating top-down information with bottom-up saliency) emerges as the(More)
Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the human brain have shown that object categories can be reliably distinguished as early as 130-170 ms on the surface of occipito-temporal cortex, peaking at the level of the N170 component. Consistent with this finding, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest major functional distinctions within the(More)
We examined whether two purportedly face-specific effects, holistic processing and the left-side bias, can also be observed in expert-level processing of Chinese characters, which are logographic and share many properties with faces. Non-Chinese readers (novices) perceived these characters more holistically than Chinese readers (experts). Chinese readers(More)
There are two competing theories of facial expression recognition. Some researchers have suggested that it is an example of "categorical perception." In this view, expression categories are considered to be discrete entities with sharp boundaries, and discrimination of nearby pairs of expressive faces is enhanced near those boundaries. Other researchers,(More)
This article examines the human face as a transmitter of expression signals and the brain as a decoder of these expression signals. If the face has evolved to optimize transmission of such signals, the basic facial expressions should have minimal overlap in their information. If the brain has evolved to optimize categorization of expressions, it should be(More)
It is well known that there exist preferred landing positions for eye fixations in visual word recognition. However, the existence of preferred landing positions in face recognition is less well established. It is also unknown how many fixations are required to recognize a face. To investigate these questions, we recorded eye movements during face(More)
When people try to find particular objects in natural scenes they make extensive use of knowledge about how and where objects tend to appear in a scene. Although many forms of such "top-down" knowledge have been incorporated into saliency map models of visual search, surprisingly, the role of object appearance has been infrequently investigated. Here we(More)
An important issue in reinforcement learning is how to incorporate expert knowledge in a principled manner, especially as we scale up to real-world tasks. In this paper, we present a method for incorporating arbitrary advice into the reward structure of a reinforcement learning agent without altering the optimal policy. This method extends the(More)