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We propose a definition of saliency by considering what the visual system is trying to optimize when directing attention. The resulting model is a Bayesian framework from which bottom-up saliency emerges naturally as the self-information of visual features, and overall saliency (incorporating top-down information with bottom-up saliency) emerges as the(More)
Event-related potential (ERP) studies of the human brain have shown that object categories can be reliably distinguished as early as 130-170 ms on the surface of occipito-temporal cortex, peaking at the level of the N170 component. Consistent with this finding, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies suggest major functional distinctions within the(More)
There are two competing theories of facial expression recognition. Some researchers have suggested that it is an example of "categorical perception." In this view, expression categories are considered to be discrete entities with sharp boundaries, and discrimination of nearby pairs of expressive faces is enhanced near those boundaries. Other researchers,(More)
Draft under revision for Neural Networks. Please do not quote without permission. Abstract There is strong evidence that face processing in the brain is localized. The double dissociation between prosopagnosia, a face recognition deecit occurring after brain damage, and visual object agnosia, diiculty recognizing other kinds of complex objects, indicates(More)
We examined whether two purportedly face-specific effects, holistic processing and the left-side bias, can also be observed in expert-level processing of Chinese characters, which are logographic and share many properties with faces. Non-Chinese readers (novices) perceived these characters more holistically than Chinese readers (experts). Chinese readers(More)
We introduce a new technique for analyzing combination models. The technique allows us to make qualitative conclusions about which IR systems should be combined. We achieve this by using a linear regression to accurately (T ' = 0.98) predict the performance of the combined system based on quantitative measurements of individual component systems taken from(More)
This article examines the human face as a transmitter of expression signals and the brain as a decoder of these expression signals. If the face has evolved to optimize transmission of such signals, the basic facial expressions should have minimal overlap in their information. If the brain has evolved to optimize categorization of expressions, it should be(More)
When people try to find particular objects in natural scenes they make extensive use of knowledge about how and where objects tend to appear in a scene. Although many forms of such " top-down " knowledge have been incorporated into saliency map models of visual search, surprisingly, the role of object appearance has been infrequently investigated. Here we(More)
— Recent years have seen an explosion of research on the computational modeling of human visual attention in task free conditions, i.e., given an image predict where humans are likely to look. This area of research could potentially provide general purpose mechanisms for robots to orient their cameras. One difficulty is that most current models of visual(More)