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A large superfamily of transmembrane receptors control cellular responses to diverse extracellular signals by catalyzing activation of specific types of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. How these receptors recognize and promote nucleotide exchange on G protein alpha subunits to initiate signal amplification is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of(More)
Alamethicin, a 20-amino acid peptide, has been studied for a number of years as a model for voltage-gated channels. Recently both the x-ray structure of alamethicin in crystal and an NMR solution structure have been published (Fox and Richards, 1982. Bannerjee et al., 1983). Both structures show that the amino end of the molecule forms a stable alpha-helix(More)
The emergence and increasing prevalence of bacterial strains that are resistant to available antibiotics demand the discovery of new therapeutic approaches. Targeting bacterial virulence is an alternative approach to antimicrobial therapy that offers promising opportunities to inhibit pathogenesis and its consequences without placing immediate life-or-death(More)
Potential smoothing, a deterministic analog of stochastic simulated annealing, is a powerful paradigm for the solution of conformational search problems that require extensive sampling, and should be a useful tool in computational approaches to structure prediction and refinement. A novel potential smoothing and search (PSS) algorithm has been developed and(More)
The carboxyl terminus of the G protein alpha subunit plays a key role in interactions with G protein-coupled receptors. Previous studies that have incorporated covalently attached probes have demonstrated that the carboxyl terminus undergoes conformational changes upon G protein activation. To examine the conformational changes that occur at the carboxyl(More)
The respiratory epithelial pathology of pertussis (whooping cough) can be reproduced by tracheal cytotoxin (TCT), a disaccharide-tetrapeptide released by Bordetella pertussis. TCT is a muramyl peptide, a class of peptidoglycan-derived compounds which have many biological activities including adjuvanticity, somnogenicity, pyrogenicity, and cytotoxicity. The(More)
Previous structure-activity studies of captopril and related active angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have led to the conclusion that the basic structural requirements for inhibition of ACE involve (a) a terminal carboxyl group; (b) an amido carbonyl group; and (c) different types of effective zinc (Zn) ligand functional groups. Such structural(More)
Effective van der Waals radii were calibrated in such a way that molecular models built from standard bond lengths and bond angles reproduced the amino acid conformations observed by crystallography in proteins and peptides. The calibrations were based on the comparison of the Ramachandran plots prepared from high-resolution X-ray data of proteins and(More)
The activated (R*) states in constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are presumably characterized by lower energies than the resting (R) states. If specific configurations of TM helices differing by rotations along the long transmembrane axes possess energies lower than that in the R state for pronounced CAMs, but not for(More)