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During mammalian central nervous system (CNS) development, contact-mediated activation of Notch1 receptors on oligodendrocyte precursors by the ligand Jagged1 induces Hes5, which inhibits maturation of these cells. Here we tested whether the Notch pathway is re-expressed in the adult CNS in multiple sclerosis (MS), an inflammatory demyelinating disease in(More)
Subsequent to demyelination in multiple sclerosis, myelin repair occurs but, as lesions age, the ability to remyelinate diminishes. Molecular pathways underlying oligodendrocyte behaviour during CNS remyelination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time constitutive expression of the CXC/alpha chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2(More)
In mammalian astrocytes, calcium waves are transmitted between cells via both a gap junction-mediated pathway and an extracellular, P2 receptor-mediated pathway, which link the cells into a syncytium. Calcium waves in astrocytes have also been shown to evoke calcium transients in neurons, and activity in neurons can elicit calcium waves in astrocytes. In(More)
The cytokine IL-1beta is a major activator of primary human fetal astrocytes in culture, leading to the production of a wide range of cytokines and chemokines important in the host defense against pathogens. IL-1beta, like TLR4, signals via the MyD88/IL-1betaR-associated kinase-1 pathway linked to activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Recent studies have shown(More)
Breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early and significant event in CNS inflammation. Astrocyte-derived VEGF-A has been implicated in this response, but the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. Here, we identify the endothelial transmembrane tight junction proteins claudin-5 (CLN-5) and occludin (OCLN) as targets of VEGF-A action.(More)
It is now clear that cytokines function as powerful regulators of glial cell function in the central nervous system (CNS), either inhibiting or promoting their contribution to CNS pathology. Although these interactions are complex, the availability of animals with targeted deletions of these genes and/or their receptors, as well as transgenic mice in which(More)
Several clinical trials have demonstrated that 4-amino-pyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel-blocking agent, improves symptoms in some patients with multiple sclerosis. The beneficial effects have typically been attributed to the restoration of conduction to demyelinated axons, since this effect was previously demonstrated experimentally. However, the(More)
In the central nervous system (CNS), the cellular processes of astrocytes make intimate contact with essentially all areas of the brain. They have also been shown to be functionally coupled to neurons, oligodendrocytes, and other astrocytes via both contact-dependent and non-contact-dependent pathways. These observations have led to the suggestion that a(More)
In the developing CNS, Notch1 and its ligand, Jagged1, regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation, but their role in repair of demyelinating lesions in diseases such as multiple sclerosis remains unresolved. To address this question, we generated a mouse model in which we targeted Notch1 inactivation to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is critical to the formation of an astrocytic scar after CNS injury, but the mechanisms by which it induces a reactive phenotype remain unresolved. Here, we show that IL-1beta regulates the phenotype of astrocytes via deactivation of the Rho GTPase-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, which governs cellular morphology and(More)