Gareth L. Howells

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BACKGROUND The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed by vascular endothelial cells and upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro. PAR-2 is activated by a tethered ligand created after proteolytic cleavage by trypsin or experimentally by a synthetic agonist peptide (PAR-2AP) corresponding to the new amino terminus of the tethered ligand.(More)
Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) belongs to a family of G-coupled receptors activated by proteolytic cleavage to reveal a tethered ligand. PAR-2 is activated by trypsin and trypsin-like serine proteases and experimentally, by receptor-activating peptides (APs), which mimic the tethered ligand. PAR-2 has recently been implicated in proinflammatory(More)
Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a central role in the regulation of the body's response to infectious and inflammatory stimuli. Recent evidence has shown that human platelets express a cell associated form of this proinflammatory cytokine very rapidly following activation. Since one of the earliest events in inflammation is frequently the rapid adhesion of(More)
The effects of interleukin-11(IL-11) on the differentiation of osteoblast precursors was tested using a bone nodule forming assay in rat calvaria cell cultures. IL-11 caused a dose dependent inhibition of nodule formation, with 500U/ml IL-11 resulting in complete inhibition of nodule formation. IL-11 also caused a reduction in alkaline phosphatase(More)
The protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is a seven transmembrane domain receptor related to the thrombin receptor, which is activated in vitro by cleavage by trypsin. Affinity-purified rabbit IgG raised against a peptide corresponding to the trypsin cleavage site of PAR-2 was used for an immunohistochemical study of skin. The expression of PAR-2 in(More)
Neutrophils were shown to express the proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a seven transmembrane domain receptor, which is activated by cleavage by trypsin. Granulocytes from 14 donors stained positively for PAR-2 with affinity-purified rabbit antibodies raised against a peptide corresponding to the trypsin cleavage site of human PAR-2. Neutrophil(More)
Interleukin (IL)4 induces IL6 production by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a dose-dependent manner, as shown by bioassay and immunoprecipitation. Interferon (IFN)-gamma, which antagonizes IL4 effects on leukocytes, synergized with IL4 in the induction of IL6 production by HUVEC. Contamination with endotoxin was excluded by(More)
Immunofluorescence demonstrating Ia and Thy-1 antigens and non-specific esterase (NSE) enzyme histochemistry were performed sequentially on sheets of ear epidermis from CBA, C3H.OH, A/J, and Balb/c mice. The same areas of epidermis were photographed after each reaction and individual cells identified and compared. Thy-1+ dendritic cells expressed neither Ia(More)
The serine protease thrombin is formed at sites of coagulation and inflammation and has been shown to have important proinflammatory cellular effects relevant to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Thrombin acts via specific cell surface receptors termed protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) and PAR-3, which have a distinctive method of activation.(More)