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Subsequent to demyelination in multiple sclerosis, myelin repair occurs but, as lesions age, the ability to remyelinate diminishes. Molecular pathways underlying oligodendrocyte behaviour during CNS remyelination remain to be elucidated. In this study, we report for the first time constitutive expression of the CXC/alpha chemokine receptors, CXCR1, CXCR2(More)
In mammalian astrocytes, calcium waves are transmitted between cells via both a gap junction-mediated pathway and an extracellular, P2 receptor-mediated pathway, which link the cells into a syncytium. Calcium waves in astrocytes have also been shown to evoke calcium transients in neurons, and activity in neurons can elicit calcium waves in astrocytes. In(More)
In the developing CNS, Notch1 and its ligand, Jagged1, regulate oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelin formation, but their role in repair of demyelinating lesions in diseases such as multiple sclerosis remains unresolved. To address this question, we generated a mouse model in which we targeted Notch1 inactivation to oligodendrocyte progenitor cells(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is critical to the formation of an astrocytic scar after CNS injury, but the mechanisms by which it induces a reactive phenotype remain unresolved. Here, we show that IL-1beta regulates the phenotype of astrocytes via deactivation of the Rho GTPase-Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway, which governs cellular morphology and(More)
BACKGROUND Vast amounts of data are collected about patients and service users in the course of health and social care service delivery. Electronic data systems for patient records have the potential to revolutionise service delivery and research. But in order to achieve this, it is essential that the ability to link the data at the individual record level(More)
The cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a potent activator of human astrocytes, inducing or modulating expression of multiple proinflammatory genes via activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1). In this study, we examined whether IL-1beta signaling is regulated in these cells by(More)
Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is believed to be an early and significant event in lesion pathogenesis in the inflammatory demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis (MS), and understanding mechanisms involved may lead to novel therapeutic avenues for this disorder. Well-differentiated endothelium forms the basis of the BBB, while astrocytes(More)
In the central nervous system (CNS), the cellular processes of astrocytes make intimate contact with essentially all areas of the brain. They have also been shown to be functionally coupled to neurons, oligodendrocytes, and other astrocytes via both contact-dependent and non-contact-dependent pathways. These observations have led to the suggestion that a(More)
It is now clear that cytokines function as powerful regulators of glial cell function in the central nervous system (CNS), either inhibiting or promoting their contribution to CNS pathology. Although these interactions are complex, the availability of animals with targeted deletions of these genes and/or their receptors, as well as transgenic mice in which(More)
Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new oral immunomodulatory compound that reduces relapse rate, brain atrophy and disability progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). LAQ has well-documented effects on inflammation in the periphery, but little is known about its direct activity within the central nervous system (CNS). To elucidate the impact of LAQ on CNS-intrinsic(More)