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Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages engulf and destroy invading microorganisms. After internalization, material captured within the phagosomal membrane is destroyed by a complex process of coordinated delivery of digestive enzymes and reactive oxygen species. Several endosomal, lysosomal, and oxidase components expected to participate in(More)
Multiple myeloma (MM) cells rely on protein homeostatic mechanisms for survival. These mechanisms could be therapeutically targeted via modulation of the heat shock response. We studied the roles of Hsp72 and Hsc70, and show that the two major cytoplasmic Hsp70s play a key role in regulating protein homeostasis and controlling multiple oncogenic pathways in(More)
BACKGROUND Biomarker identification is becoming increasingly important for the development of personalized or stratified therapies. Metabolomics yields biomarkers indicative of phenotype that can be used to characterize transitions between health and disease, disease progression and therapeutic responses. The desire to reproducibly detect ever greater(More)
Identifying mutations that stabilize proteins is challenging because most substitutions are destabilizing. In addition to being of immense practical utility, the ability to evolve protein stability in vivo may indicate how evolution has formed today's protein sequences. Here we describe a genetic selection that directly links the in vivo stability of(More)
The association of genetic lesions detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with survival was analyzed in 1069 patients with newly presenting myeloma treated in the Medical Research Council Myeloma IX trial, with the aim of identifying patients associated with the worst prognosis. A comprehensive FISH panel was performed, and the lesions(More)
The mechanisms involved in the progression from monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering myeloma (SMM) to malignant multiple myeloma (MM) and plasma cell leukemia (PCL) are poorly understood but believed to involve the sequential acquisition of genetic hits. We performed exome and whole-genome sequencing on a series of MGUS(More)
Reduction of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate (methyleneTHF), a donor for methylating dUMP to dTMP in DNA synthesis, to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (methylTHF), the primary methyl donor for methionine synthesis, is catalyzed by 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR). A common 677 C --> T polymorphism in the MTHFR gene results in thermolability and(More)
Ire1 (Ern1) is an unusual transmembrane protein kinase essential for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) unfolded protein response (UPR). Activation of Ire1 by association of its N-terminal ER luminal domains promotes autophosphorylation by its cytoplasmic kinase domain, leading to activation of the C-terminal ribonuclease domain, which splices Xbp1 mRNA(More)
BACKGROUND Bisphosphonates reduce the risk of skeletal events in patients with malignant bone disease, and zoledronic acid has shown potential anticancer effects in preclinical and clinical studies. We aimed to establish whether bisphosphonates can affect clinical outcomes in patients with multiple myeloma. METHODS Patients of age 18 years or older with(More)