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BACKGROUND Bilateral prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy (BPSO) is used widely used to reduce the risk of breast and ovarian cancer in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. However, the reduction in mortality after this surgery is unclear. We aimed to assess whether BPSO improves overall mortality or cancer-specific mortality in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation(More)
BACKGROUND Data concerning the efficacy of bilateral prophylactic oophorectomy for reducing the risk of gynecologic cancer in women with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations are limited. We investigated whether this procedure reduces the risk of cancers of the coelomic epithelium and breast in women who carry such mutations. METHODS A total of 551 women with(More)
Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed(More)
The effect of seminal plasma (SP) on the motility, capacitation status, penetration through cervical mucus and fertility of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa was examined. In the presence of SP, motility of frozen-thawed spermatozoa was better (P<0.001) and there were more uncapacitated and less acrosome-reacted cells in comparison with controls (P<0.001).(More)
The effect of cryopreservation on the capacitation status and fertility of ram spermatozoa was observed. After the chlortetracycline staining technique was validated for ram spermatozoa, it was applied to fresh or long-term frozen-stored spermatozoa. Fresh spermatozoa displayed mainly the F pattern (non-capacitated; 61.3%), becoming B pattern (capacitated;(More)
PURPOSE Data on the efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy for breast cancer risk reduction in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations are limited, despite the clinical use of this risk-management strategy. Thus, we estimated the degree of breast cancer risk reduction after surgery in women who carry these mutations. PATIENTS AND METHODS(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the proportion of breast cancers arising in patients with germ line BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations expressing basal markers and developing predictive tests for identification of high-risk patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Histopathologic material from 182 tumors in BRCA1 mutation carriers, 63 BRCA2 carriers, and 109 controls, collected as(More)
Mutations in the BRCA1 gene, discovered in 1994, are associated with an 80-90% lifetime risk of breast cancer. We have analysed 60 families with a history of breast and/or ovarian cancer for germline mutations in BRCA1. Twenty-two different mutations were detected in 32 families (53%), of which 14 are previously unreported. We observed a significant(More)
Sex-sorting of mammalian spermatozoa has applications for genetic improvement of farm animals, in humans for the control of sex-linked disease, and in wildlife as a captive management strategy and for the re-population of endangered species. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide on the Beltsville sperm sexing technology, the only effective(More)