Learn More
Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, dementia caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection remains a devastating and common neurological disorder. Although the mechanisms governing neurodegeneration during HIV-1 infection remain uncertain, the HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), has been proposed as a(More)
An important mechanism of host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans involves the direct microbicidal activity of lymphocytes. The importance of CD4+ T cells is illustrated by the incidence of this infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients; however, the relative activity of microbicidal CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells and(More)
Tuberculosis is a major human and animal disease of major importance worldwide. Genetically, the closely related strains within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which cause disease are well-characterized but there is an urgent need better to understand their phenotypes. To search rapidly for metabolic differences, a working method using Biolog(More)
Mycobacterial lipids have long been known to modulate the function of a variety of cells of the innate immune system. Here, we report the extraction and characterisation of polar and apolar free lipids from Mycobacterium bovis AF 2122/97 and identify the major lipids present in these fractions. Lipids found included trehalose dimycolate (TDM) and trehalose(More)
The DosR regulon and the Enduring Hypoxic Response (EHR) define a group of M. tuberculosis genes that are specifically induced in bacilli exposed in vitro to conditions thought to mimic the environment encountered by Mycobacteria during latent infection. Although well described in humans, latent mycobacterial infection in cattle remains poorly understood.(More)
There is a need to improve the efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination against tuberculosis in humans and cattle. Previously, we found boosting BCG-primed cows with recombinant human type 5 adenovirus expressing antigen 85A (Ad5-85A) increased protection against Mycobacterium bovis infection compared to BCG vaccination alone. The aim of this(More)
Gene transcription studies have identified dual roles for the cytokines IL-17A and IL-22 in bovine tuberculosis, where they show potential as both predictors of vaccine success and correlates of infection. To allow for a detailed investigation of the cell populations responsible for production of these cytokines, we have utilised a novel bovine IL-22(More)
Vaccination for the control of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle is not currently used within any international control program, and is illegal within the EU. Candidate vaccines, based upon Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) all interfere with the action of the tuberculin skin test, which is used to determine if animals, herds and(More)
OBJECTIVES To define the causes of hypokalaemia in an unselected adult population. DESIGN Retrospective survey of biochemistry database. SETTING District general hospital in southwest Scotland. PARTICIPANTS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES There were 187,704 measurements of urea and electrolytes in 2010. Sixty-one patients had serum potassium <2.5 mmol/L on(More)
  • 1