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Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, dementia caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection remains a devastating and common neurological disorder. Although the mechanisms governing neurodegeneration during HIV-1 infection remain uncertain, the HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), has been proposed as a(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. METHODS(More)
The hypoxaemia of hepatopulmonary syndrome, seen in severe chronic liver dysfunction, occurs as a result of precapillary pulmonary arterial dilatation and arteriovenous communications. These abnormalities contribute to the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion, and the right to left blood flow shunting. Nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful vasodilator(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of immune effectors that directly bind and kill fungi via a perforin-dependent mechanism. The receptor mediating this activity and its potential role in disease remain unknown. Using an unbiased approach, we determined that NKp30 is responsible for recognition and killing of the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus and(More)
BACKGROUND Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1's biology and pathogenicity. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated dementia (HAD) continues to be a devastating consequence of HIV-1 infection of the brain although the underlying disease mechanisms remain(More)
Results of previous studies utilizing bioinformatic approaches in antigen-mining experiments revealed that secreted proteins are among the most frequently recognized antigens from Mycobacterium bovis. Thus, we hypothesized that the analysis of secreted proteins is likely to reveal additional immunogenic antigens that can be used to increase the specificity(More)
The Microsoft SenseCam is a small multi-sensor camera worn around the user's neck. It was designed primarily for lifelog recording. At present, the SenseCam passively records up to 3,000 images per day as well as logging data from several on-board sensors. The sheer volume of image and sensor data captured by the SenseCam creates a number of challenges in(More)
Recombinant interferon alfa-2a (Roferon-A, Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Nutley, NJ) has been evaluated in clinical trials of more than 1300 patients with a broad spectrum of oncologic disease. Patients with either solid tumors or hematologic malignancies were treated with daily or three-times-weekly intramuscular injections for induction periods ranging from 8(More)
The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of estuarine ecosystems has highlighted the need to deploy appropriate biological indices for these locations. Fish diseases and histopathology, with a broad range of causes, are increasingly being used as indicators of environmental stress since they provide a definite biological end-point of(More)
HIV-related peripheral neuropathy is a major neurological complication of HIV infection, although little is known about its pathogenesis. We amplified HIV-1 C2V3 envelope sequences from peroneal nerves obtained from HIV/AIDS patients. Sequence analysis and infectious recombinant viruses containing peripheral nerve-derived C2V3 sequences indicated a(More)