Learn More
Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, dementia caused by human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection remains a devastating and common neurological disorder. Although the mechanisms governing neurodegeneration during HIV-1 infection remain uncertain, the HIV-1 accessory protein, viral protein R (Vpr), has been proposed as a(More)
The hypoxaemia of hepatopulmonary syndrome, seen in severe chronic liver dysfunction, occurs as a result of precapillary pulmonary arterial dilatation and arteriovenous communications. These abnormalities contribute to the mismatch between ventilation and perfusion, and the right to left blood flow shunting. Nitric oxide (NO) is a powerful vasodilator(More)
OBJECTIVE Human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a common and disabling disorder, often associated with antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. We investigated the clinical features and associated pathogenic determinants of HIV-SN in a neurological cohort of HIV-infected patients, together with a novel model of HIV-SN. METHODS(More)
Natural killer (NK) cells are a subset of immune effectors that directly bind and kill fungi via a perforin-dependent mechanism. The receptor mediating this activity and its potential role in disease remain unknown. Using an unbiased approach, we determined that NKp30 is responsible for recognition and killing of the fungal pathogens Cryptococcus and(More)
BACKGROUND Viral diversity and abundance are defining properties of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1's biology and pathogenicity. Despite the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated dementia (HAD) continues to be a devastating consequence of HIV-1 infection of the brain although the underlying disease mechanisms remain(More)
The Microsoft SenseCam is a small multi-sensor camera worn around the user's neck. It was designed primarily for lifelog recording. At present, the SenseCam passively records up to 3,000 images per day as well as logging data from several on-board sensors. The sheer volume of image and sensor data captured by the SenseCam creates a number of challenges in(More)
Results of previous studies utilizing bioinformatic approaches in antigen-mining experiments revealed that secreted proteins are among the most frequently recognized antigens from Mycobacterium bovis. Thus, we hypothesized that the analysis of secreted proteins is likely to reveal additional immunogenic antigens that can be used to increase the specificity(More)
Infectious meningitis and encephalitis is caused by invasion of circulating pathogens into the brain. It is unknown how the circulating pathogens dynamically interact with brain endothelium under shear stress, leading to invasion into the brain. Here, using intravital microscopy, we have shown that Cryptococcus neoformans, a yeast pathogen that causes(More)
A peptide cocktail derived from the mycobacterial antigens ESAT-6, CFP-10, and Rv3615c allowed differentiation between Mycobacterium bovis-infected and M. bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-vaccinated cattle when used as a skin test reagent for a "DIVA" test (i.e., a test capable of differentiating infected and uninfected vaccinated animals). Addition of(More)
An important mechanism of host defense to Cryptococcus neoformans involves the direct microbicidal activity of lymphocytes. The importance of CD4+ T cells is illustrated by the incidence of this infection in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients; however, the relative activity of microbicidal CD4+ T cells compared with CD8+ T cells and(More)