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Small molecule inhibitors have proven extremely useful for investigating signal transduction pathways and have the potential for development into therapeutics for inhibiting signal transduction pathways whose activities contribute to human diseases. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a member of a large family of pleiotropic cytokines that are(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta stimulation leads to phosphorylation and activation of Smad2 and Smad3, which form complexes with Smad4 that accumulate in the nucleus and regulate transcription of target genes. Here we demonstrate that, following TGF-beta stimulation of epithelial cells, receptors remain active for at least 3-4 hr, and continuous(More)
Small molecule inhibitors have proven extremely useful for investigating signal transduction pathways and have the potential for development into therapeutics for inhibiting signal trans-duction pathways whose activities contribute to human diseases. Transforming growth factor ␤ (TGF-␤) is a member of a large family of pleiotropic cytokines that are(More)
BACKGROUND Novel prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic strategies are urgently required for malignant melanoma. Ecto-5-prime-nucleotidase (NT5E; CD73) overexpression has been reported in several human cancers. The mechanism(s) underlying deregulated expression and the clinical consequences of changes in expression are not known. METHODS We used RT-PCR,(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are pleiotropic members of the TGF-beta superfamily which regulate many biological processes during development and adult tissue homeostasis and are implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of human diseases. Their involvement in both normal and aberrant physiology creates a need for rapid, sensitive and methodologically(More)
In early Xenopus embryos, the prototypical XFast-1/Smad2/Smad4 complex ARF1 is induced at the Mix.2 ARE by activin overexpression. We have characterised ARF2, a related, but much more abundant, complex formed during gastrulation in response to endogenous TGFbeta family members and we have identified a novel Fast family member, XFast-3, as its transcription(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signals through a heteromeric complex of serine/threonine kinase receptors. The type I receptor phosphorylates and activates the receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), Smad2 and Smad3, which form hetero-oligomeric complexes with the co-Smad, Smad4, and translocate to the nucleus. Smad3 and Smad4 can bind directly to(More)
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) act as central regulators of ovarian physiology and may be involved in ovarian cancer development. In an effort to understand these processes, we characterized transforming growth factor beta/BMP receptor and Smad expression in immortalized ovarian surface epithelial cells and a panel of ovarian cancer cell lines. These(More)
Transcriptional silencing of tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) occurs in several human tumors including melanoma. We investigated methylated TFPI2 as a biomarker of metastatic melanoma using qRT-PCR to assess TFPI2 expression and pyrosequencing to analyze CpG island methylation in malignant melanoma cell lines, in benign nevi, in 112 primary and(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/activin-induced Smad2/Smad4 complexes are recruited to different promoter elements by transcription factors, such as Fast-1 or the Mix family proteins Mixer and Milk, through a direct interaction between Smad2 and a common Smad interaction motif (SIM) in the transcription factors. Here we identify residues in the(More)