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We describe noninvasive techniques to optimize reflectometry measurements, particularly retinal densitometry, which measures the photopigment density difference. With these techniques unwanted scattered light is greatly reduced, and the retina is visualized during measurements. Thus results may be compared for each retinal location, and visible artifacts(More)
Barley is one of the world’s most important crops providing food and related products for millions of people. Diseases continue to pose a serious threat to barley production, despite the use of fungicides and resistant varieties, highlighting the impact of fungicide resistance and the breakdown of host plant resistance on the efficacy of control measures.(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe(More)
The scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) system has been modified to permit direct retinal perimetry. A movable pinhole in a retinal conjugate plane furnishes a mapping stimulus whose retinal locus is directly observable on a video image of the fundus. Scotoma maps in patients with macular disease and physiologic scotomata associated with normal optic discs(More)
Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant(More)
Comprehensive mutant libraries can be readily constructed by transposon mutagenesis. To systematically mutagenise the genome of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we have employed high-throughput shuttle transposon mutagenesis of a cosmid library prepared in Escherichia coli. The location of transposon insertions is determined using(More)
Boundary line models for N 2 O emissions from agricultural soils provide a means of estimating emissions within defined ranges. Boundary line models partition a two-dimensional region of parameter space into sub-regions by means of thresholds based on relationships between N 2 O emissions and explanatory variables, typically using soil data available from(More)