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We describe noninvasive techniques to optimize reflectometry measurements, particularly retinal densitometry, which measures the photopigment density difference. With these techniques unwanted scattered light is greatly reduced, and the retina is visualized during measurements. Thus results may be compared for each retinal location, and visible artifacts(More)
Barley is one of the world’s most important crops providing food and related products for millions of people. Diseases continue to pose a serious threat to barley production, despite the use of fungicides and resistant varieties, highlighting the impact of fungicide resistance and the breakdown of host plant resistance on the efficacy of control measures.(More)
The scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) system has been modified to permit direct retinal perimetry. A movable pinhole in a retinal conjugate plane furnishes a mapping stimulus whose retinal locus is directly observable on a video image of the fundus. Scotoma maps in patients with macular disease and physiologic scotomata associated with normal optic discs(More)
Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant(More)
Boundary line models for N 2 O emissions from agricultural soils provide a means of estimating emissions within defined ranges. Boundary line models partition a two-dimensional region of parameter space into sub-regions by means of thresholds based on relationships between N 2 O emissions and explanatory variables, typically using soil data available from(More)
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have application in analysis of the performance of diagnostic indicators used in the assessment of disease risk in clinical and veterinary medicine and in crop protection. For a binary indicator, an ROC curve summarizes the two distributions of risk scores obtained by retrospectively categorizing subjects as(More)
In certain circumstances inference based on the likelihood function can be hindered by, for example, computational complexity; new applications of directional statistics to bioinformatics problems give many obvious examples. In such cases it is necessary to seek an alternative method of estimation. Two pseudolikelihoods, each based on conditional(More)
An assessment is presented of a Solar Polar Orbiter mission as a Technology Reference Study. The goal is to focus the development of strategically important technologies of potential relevance to future science missions. The technology is solar sailing, and so the use of solar sail propulsion is, thus, defined a priori. The primary mission architecture(More)