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The nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and glycoprotein (G) genes of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses (WCBV) were sequenced and compared with those of other lyssaviruses. N gene nucleotide identities provided unequivocal separation of all lyssavirus genotypes with an identity threshold of 82%. On this basis, Irkut virus should be considered as a new(More)
Throughout North America, rabies virus (RV) is endemic in bats. Distinct RV variants exist that are closely associated with infection of individual host species, such that there is little or no sustained spillover infection away from the primary host. Using Bayesian methodology, nucleotide substitution rates were estimated from alignments of partial(More)
Partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences of the rhabdoviruses Obodhiang (OBOV), Kotonkon (KOTV), Rochambeau (RBUV), Kern canyon (KCV), Mount Elgon bat (MEBV), Kolongo (KOLV) and Sandjimba (SJAV) were generated and their phylogenetic positions within the family Rhabdoviridae were determined. Both OBOV and KOTV were placed within the genus Ephemerovirus. RBUV(More)
BACKGROUND Many studies of sexual behavior have shown that individuals vary greatly in their number of sexual partners over time, but it has proved difficult to obtain parameter estimates relating to the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission except in small-scale contact tracing studies. Recent developments in molecular phylodynamics(More)
Unlike foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and pigs, which spreads rapidly, resulting in easily detectable foci of clinical infection, the disease in sheep is characterized by restricted transmission, low morbidity and sporadic clinical cases. The study described was designed to investigate whether the ability of sheep to transmit and maintain FMD virus(More)
Fifty-five rabies virus isolates originating from different regions of the former Soviet Union (FSU) were compared with isolates originating from Eurasia, Africa, and North America according to complete or partial nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences. The FSU isolates formed five distinct groups. Group A represented viruses originating from the Arctic, which(More)
BACKGROUND The structure of sexual contact networks plays a key role in the epidemiology of sexually transmitted infections, and their reconstruction from interview data has provided valuable insights into the spread of infection. For HIV, the long period of infectivity has made the interpretation of contact networks more difficult, and major discrepancies(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe(More)