Gareth Hughes

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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase forms two multiprotein complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, which regulate cell growth, cell survival, and autophagy. Allosteric inhibitors of mTORC1, such as rapamycin, have been extensively used to study tumor cell growth, proliferation, and autophagy but have shown only limited clinical utility. Here, we describe(More)
A confocal scanning imager moves an illumination spot over the object and a (virtual) detector synchronously over the image. In the confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope this is accomplished by reusing the source optics for detection. The common optical elements are all mirrors-either flat or spherical-and the scanners are positioned to compensate(More)
Increasing international travel and trade have rendered U.S. borders much more porous and dramatically increased the risk of introductions of invasive plant pests into agricultural crops (1). Nationally, the responsibility for safeguarding agriculture falls to the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Plant Protection(More)
Genetically diverse pathogens (such as Human Immunodeficiency virus type 1, HIV-1) are frequently stratified into phylogenetically or immunologically defined subtypes for classification purposes. Computational identification of such subtypes is helpful in surveillance, epidemiological analysis and detection of novel variants, e.g., circulating recombinant(More)
We describe noninvasive techniques to optimize reflectometry measurements, particularly retinal densitometry, which measures the photopigment density difference. With these techniques unwanted scattered light is greatly reduced, and the retina is visualized during measurements. Thus results may be compared for each retinal location, and visible artifacts(More)
Comprehensive mutant libraries can be readily constructed by transposon mutagenesis. To systematically mutagenise the genome of the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2), we have employed high-throughput shuttle transposon mutagenesis of a cosmid library prepared in Escherichia coli. The location of transposon insertions is determined using(More)
We have designed a recording ophthalmoscope which requires substantially less light than conventional ophthalmoscopes or fundus cameras. A laser beam of <100-microW total power provides the flying spot on the subject's retina, allowing an inversion of the usual division of the pupil: only the central half-millimeter is needed for illumination, and the(More)
ABSTRACT For aggregated or heterogeneous disease incidence, one can predict the proportion of sampling units diseased at a higher scale (e.g., plants) based on the proportion of diseased individuals and heterogeneity of diseased individuals at a lower scale (e.g., leaves) using a function derived from the beta-binomial distribution. Here, a simple(More)