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In multiple sclerosis (MS), the influx of activated T lymphocytes into the brain parenchyma leads to the subsequent damage of oligodendrocytes, the cells that produce central nervous system (CNS) myelin. We report here that interferon beta-1b (IFNbeta-1b), a drug shown to be efficacious in the treatment of patients with MS, decreases the in vitro migration(More)
Interferon beta (IFN-beta) has been shown in several clinical trials to have efficacy in MS. Its mechanism of action, however, remains unclear. In this review, several biological activities of IFN-beta are highlighted, including its inhibitory effects on proliferation of leukocytes and antigen presentation. Furthermore, IFN-beta may modulate the profile of(More)
The increased migration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) across a fibronectin (FN) matrix in response to the chemokines RANTES, MIP-1 alpha and MCP-1 is antagonized by interferon-beta-1b (IFN beta-1b). MCP-1 treatment of PBMNCs elevates their mRNA level and secretion of a matrix degrading enzyme, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is(More)
TNF-alpha is a proinflammatory cytokine involved in many inflammatory conditions such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cachexia, AIDS, and multiple sclerosis (MS). TNF-alpha is produced mainly by cells of the macrophage lineage, which includes microglia in the central nervous system. Here, we describe a mechanism through which TNF-alpha is(More)
IL-10, a cytokine with important anti-inflammatory properties, is generated within the CNS during neuroinflammation. The mechanism for its production is poorly understood. Since infiltrating lymphocytes come into close proximity with the macrophage-like cells of the CNS, the microglia, we have used an in vitro human microglia-T cell coculture system to(More)
Turner syndrome is thought to result from the haploinsufficiency of genes on the sex chromosomes, but these genes have not been identified yet. We describe two males with deleted ring Y chromosomes, one (TS) with full Turner syndrome and one (DM) without. TS has short stature, skeletal anomalies, lymphogenic obstruction, cardiovascular abnormalities, and(More)
We have studied the structure, organization, and evolution of the human TSPY gene family by mapping three sequence variants identified through RT-PCR analysis onto genomic clones derived from two different YAC contigs. TSPY gene family members occur in at least six locations on the human Y chromosome, and each cluster contains a unique combination of(More)
The human beta-casein gene (CSN2) has been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to human chromosome 4q13 --> q21 and to the homologous chimpanzee chromosome at 3p13 --> p12. This confirms the presence of a pericentric inversion that distinguishes the two species, as first observed by chromosomal banding studies.
Pneumonia (hospital-acquired and community-acquired) is commonly encountered in intensive care. Several papers recently published on this subject have shed more light on different aspects of this important topic. Hypothermia has been shown to improve post-arrest outcome, but how often do we use it? And finally, several papers have recently appeared in the(More)