Gareth D. Weedall

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Experimental malaria vaccines based on two sporozoite stage candidate antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP), have undergone clinical trials of efficacy. The relevance of naturally existing polymorphism in these molecules remains unknown. Sequence polymorphism in the genes(More)
The phylogenetic relationships of representative species of the superfamily Lepocreadioidea were assessed using partial lsrDNA and nad1 sequences. Forty-two members of the family Lepocreadiidae, six putative members of the Enenteridae, six gyliauchenid species and one Gorgocephalidae, were studied along with 22 species representing 8 families. The(More)
Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP 1) of Plasmodium falciparum has a major allelic dimorphism in the majority of its sequence, the origin and significance of which is obscure. Here, the cloning and sequencing of the msp1 gene from P. reichenowi (a chimpanzee parasite that is the nearest relative of P. falciparum) and P. gallinaceum (a malaria parasite of(More)
The outcome of an Entamoeba histolytica infection is variable and can result in either asymptomatic carriage, immediate or latent disease (diarrhea/dysentery/amebic liver abscess). An E. histolytica multilocus genotyping system based on tRNA gene-linked arrays has shown that genetic differences exist among parasites isolated from patients with different(More)
Parasite antigen genes might evolve under frequency-dependent immune selection. The distinctive patterns of polymorphism that result can be detected using population genetic methods that test for signatures of balancing selection, allowing genes encoding important targets of immunity to be identified. Analyses can be complicated by population structures,(More)
BACKGROUND Endemic human pathogens are subject to strong immune selection, and interrogation of pathogen genome variation for signatures of balancing selection can identify important target antigens. Several major antigen genes in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown such signatures in polymorphism-versus-divergence indices (comparing with(More)
Deciphering the dynamics and evolution of insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is crucial for successful vector control. This study reports an increase of resistance intensity and a rise of multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles funestus in Malawi leading to reduced bed net efficacy. Anopheles funestus group mosquitoes were collected in southern(More)
Several eukaryotic parasites form cysts that transmit infection. The process is found in diverse organisms such as Toxoplasma, Giardia, and nematodes. In Entamoeba histolytica this process cannot be induced in vitro, making it difficult to study. In Entamoeba invadens, stage conversion can be induced, but its utility as a model system to study developmental(More)
BACKGROUND Comparative genome analyses of parasites allow large scale investigation of selective pressures shaping their evolution. An acute limitation to such analysis of Plasmodium falciparum is that there is only very partial low-coverage genome sequence of the most closely related species, the chimpanzee parasite P. reichenowi. However, if orthologous(More)
Immune evasion by Plasmodium falciparum is favored by extensive allelic diversity of surface antigens. Some of them, most notably the vaccine-candidate merozoite surface protein (MSP)-1, exhibit a poorly understood pattern of allelic dimorphism, in which all observed alleles group into two highly diverged allelic families with few or no inter-family(More)