Gareth A. D. Hardy

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We show that at least half of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have circulating CD8(+) T cells specific for epitopes derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Compared to healthy age-matched subjects, more CD8(+) T cells in CVID patients were committed to CMV. Despite previous reports of defects in antigen(More)
Most patients with chronic HIV-1 infection lack functional CD4(+) and CD8(+) HIV-1-specific T cells with proliferative and cytolytic capacity, respectively. This is despite being able to produce intracellular cytokines in response to viral antigens. Protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is unable to completely eradicate(More)
Previous reports have emphasized the requirements for strong type 1 cell-mediated responses in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Gag p24-specific CD4 helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) responses have been shown to inversely correlate with viral burden in HIV-1-infected individuals. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
OBJECTIVES We aimed to provide evidence of thymic reconstitution after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected patients and to correlate this with the restoration of peripheral naïve T cells. METHODS Positron emission tomography (PET) enables definitive evidence of thymic activity, indicating functional potential. In this case(More)
Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 replication has been established, the mechanisms involved in restoration of immune responses and reconstitution remain unknown. This study provides evidence of changes in expression of type 1 and type 2 cytokine-specific mRNA occurring during HIV-1 infection, before and after(More)
HIV-1-specific CD8 cytotoxic and CD4 helper T-lymphocytes, which are respectively the central effector and regulatory cells in viral infections, together with fully functional antigen-presenting cells, are essential at all stages of HIV-1 infection to control viral activity. Recent studies indicate that such protective HIV-1-specific immune responses can be(More)
In the majority of untreated patients, HIV-1 infection presents as a progressive disease of the immune system. Recent studies indicate that immune responses can be induced in HIV-1 infected individuals, leading to some immune control of virus replication. Such immune responses are also observed in small numbers of untreated HIV-1 infected long-term(More)
UNLABELLED A 44-year-old man ingested about 40 flowers of Colchicum autumnale L. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain 2 hours after ingestion and had diarrhea 14 hours after ingestion. Hematological values remained within normal range. Treatment was mainly supportive. The outcome was favorable. The intoxication was confirmed by(More)
The success of an effective antiretroviral therapy regimen depends upon its effects on the viral load, the CD4 T-cell count and the ability to preserve and/or restore useful HIV-1-specific immune responses. Many new problems that limit the effectiveness of current treatment are arising during comparison of the differing positions taken in the British and(More)