Gareth A. D. Hardy

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Most patients with chronic HIV-1 infection lack functional CD4(+) and CD8(+) HIV-1-specific T cells with proliferative and cytolytic capacity, respectively. This is despite being able to produce intracellular cytokines in response to viral antigens. Protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is unable to completely eradicate(More)
HIV-1-specific CD8 cytotoxic and CD4 helper T-lymphocytes, which are respectively the central effector and regulatory cells in viral infections, together with fully functional antigen-presenting cells, are essential at all stages of HIV-1 infection to control viral activity. Recent studies indicate that such protective HIV-1-specific immune responses can be(More)
Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 replication has been established, the mechanisms involved in restoration of immune responses and reconstitution remain unknown. This study provides evidence of changes in expression of type 1 and type 2 cytokine-specific mRNA occurring during HIV-1 infection, before and after(More)
Previous reports have emphasized the requirements for strong type 1 cell-mediated responses in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Gag p24-specific CD4 helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) responses have been shown to inversely correlate with viral burden in HIV-1-infected individuals. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
Reconstitution of functional CD4(+) T cell responsiveness to in vitro stimuli is associated with continuous highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Thirty-six antiretroviral naive patients received HAART over 16 weeks. Antigen-specific, mitogen and interleukin (IL)-2 induced lymphocyte proliferative responses and specific IL-2 and IL-4 production were(More)
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with reduction in the morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced HIV-1 disease. The ability of such treatment to improve immune responses against HIV-1 and opportunistic pathogens is variable and limited. Addition of cytokine immunotherapy to this treatment may improve immune responses. IL-2(More)
To measure proviral HIV-1 DNA in patients treated with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) during recent and chronic HIV-1 infection, and in long-term non-progressors (LTNP). We quantified HIV-1 DNA in peripheral blood samples from 39 HIV-1-infected subjects; 26 patients initiated non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based ART at two(More)
In this review we address questions which must be considered if better attempts are to be made to treat all persons presently infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are thirty million people in the world presently living with HIV, only 10% of whom are likely to be able to access currently available drug therapy. Even when available, such(More)
OBJECTIVES We aimed to provide evidence of thymic reconstitution after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1 infected patients and to correlate this with the restoration of peripheral naïve T cells. METHODS Positron emission tomography (PET) enables definitive evidence of thymic activity, indicating functional potential. In this case(More)
HIV-1 infection results in profound dysfunction of the CD4 T-cell population. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy allows the reconstitution of CD4 T-cell numbers, functional abnormalities remain, including inadequate responses to vaccination. IL-2 increases CD4 T-cell numbers and function. We report the effects of IL-2 given with tetanus(More)