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We show that at least half of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have circulating CD8(+) T cells specific for epitopes derived from cytomegalovirus (CMV) and/or the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Compared to healthy age-matched subjects, more CD8(+) T cells in CVID patients were committed to CMV. Despite previous reports of defects in antigen(More)
Most patients with chronic HIV-1 infection lack functional CD4(+) and CD8(+) HIV-1-specific T cells with proliferative and cytolytic capacity, respectively. This is despite being able to produce intracellular cytokines in response to viral antigens. Protease inhibitor (PI)-based highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is unable to completely eradicate(More)
UNLABELLED A 44-year-old man ingested about 40 flowers of Colchicum autumnale L. The patient presented with nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain 2 hours after ingestion and had diarrhea 14 hours after ingestion. Hematological values remained within normal range. Treatment was mainly supportive. The outcome was favorable. The intoxication was confirmed by(More)
Previous reports have emphasized the requirements for strong type 1 cell-mediated responses in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 Gag p24-specific CD4 helper T-lymphocyte (HTL) responses have been shown to inversely correlate with viral burden in HIV-1-infected individuals. In this study, peripheral blood mononuclear cells(More)
The success of an effective antiretroviral therapy regimen depends upon its effects on the viral load, the CD4 T-cell count and the ability to preserve and/or restore useful HIV-1-specific immune responses. Many new problems that limit the effectiveness of current treatment are arising during comparison of the differing positions taken in the British and(More)
The thymic output of patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was assessed by sjTREC (signal joint T cell receptor rearrangement excision circle) analysis to determine the thymic contribution to CD4(+) T cell reconstitution during initial therapy and during interleukin 2 (IL-2) and/or Remune supplementation of HAART. Levels of sjTRECs(More)
The combination of intermittent subcutaneous IL-2 and highly active antiretroviral therapy in individuals infected with HIV-1 has been shown to have a beneficial quantitative effect on the CD4 T cell count. We observed IL-2-associated viral load 'blips' inducing HIV-1-specific lymphoproliferative responses at 24 weeks in such individuals. This(More)
Highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) is associated with reduction in the morbidity and mortality of patients with advanced HIV-1 disease. The ability of such treatment to improve immune responses against HIV-1 and opportunistic pathogens is variable and limited. Addition of cytokine immunotherapy to this treatment may improve immune responses. IL-2(More)
Although the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-1 replication has been established, the mechanisms involved in restoration of immune responses and reconstitution remain unknown. This study provides evidence of changes in expression of type 1 and type 2 cytokine-specific mRNA occurring during HIV-1 infection, before and after(More)