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Crystal structure analysis of Flavivirus methyltransferases uncovered a flavivirus-conserved cavity located next to the binding site for its cofactor, S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM). Chemical derivatization of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH), the product inhibitor of the methylation reaction, with substituents that extend into the identified cavity, generated(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that affects 2.5 billion people worldwide. There are four dengue serotypes (DENV1 to DENV4), and infection with one elicits lifelong immunity to that serotype but offers only transient protection against the other serotypes. Identification of the protective determinants of the human antibody response to(More)
We report that dengue virus (DENV) methyltransferase sequentially methylates the guanine N-7 and ribose 2'-O positions of viral RNA cap (GpppA-->m(7)GpppA-->m(7)GpppAm). The order of two methylations is determined by the preference of 2'-O methylation for substrate m(7)GpppA-RNA to GpppA-RNA, and the 2'-O methylation is not absolutely dependent on the prior(More)
In 2012 a large outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) widely spread over China, causing more than 2 million cases and 567 deaths. Our purpose was to characterize the major pathogens responsible for the 2012 HFMD outbreak and analyze the genetic characterization of the enterovirus 71 (EV71) strains in Shanghai; also, to analyze the dynamic(More)
Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no antiviral therapy is currently available for clinical treatment of these pathogens. To identify flavivirus inhibitors, we performed a high-throughput screening of compound libraries using cells containing luciferase-reporting replicon of West Nile viruses (WNV). Five novel small molecular inhibitors(More)
Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is a major public health threat. The virus poses risk to 2.5 billion people worldwide and causes 50 to 100 million human infections each year. Neither a vaccine nor an antiviral therapy is currently available for prevention and treatment of DENV infection. Here, we report a previously undescribed adenosine(More)
Although flaviviruses cause significant human diseases, no effective therapy is currently available. Host factors essential for viral replication are potential targets for antiviral development. Here we report that cyclophilins (CyPs), a family of cellular peptidyl-prolyl isomerases (PPIases), play a role in flavivirus replication. Huh-7.5 cells with(More)
Degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) as a sole carbon and energy source was investigated utilizing an enriched bacterial consortium derived from an old environmental MTBE spill. This enriched culture grew on MTBE with concentration up to 500 mg/l, reducing the MTBE in medium to undetectable concentrations in 23 days. Traces of tert-butyl alcohol(More)
Brequinar is an inhibitor of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that is required for de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis. Here we report that brequinar has activity against a broad spectrum of viruses. The compound not only inhibits flaviviruses (dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Powassan virus) but also suppresses a plus-strand RNA(More)
Superinfection exclusion is the ability of an established viral infection to interfere with a second viral infection. Using West Nile virus (WNV) as a model, we show that replicating replicons in BHK-21 cells suppress subsequent WNV infection. The WNV replicon also suppresses superinfections of other flaviviruses but not nonflaviviruses. Mode-of-action(More)