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Ginsenoside Rd (Rd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemic cerebral damage in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to further define the preclinical characteristics of Rd. We show that Rd passes the intact blood-brain barrier and exerts protection in both transient and permanent middle(More)
We previously found that ginsenoside Rd (Rd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, attenuates neuronal oxidative damage in vitro induced by hydrogen peroxide and oxygen-glucose deprivation. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential protective effects and associated mechanisms of Rd in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia. Rats(More)
Inflammatory responses in the brain are involved in the etiopathogenesis and sequelae of seizures. Ligation of microglial CD40 plays a role in the development of inflammatory responses in the central nervous system (CNS). Our study showed that there was an increased CD40 expression on activated microglia in the brain injury after lithium pilocarpine-induced(More)
Despite decades of study, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) continues to be a serious and significant health problem in the United States and worldwide. The mechanisms contributing to brain injury after SAH remain unclear. Traditionally, most in vivo research has heavily emphasized the basic mechanisms of SAH over the pathophysiological or morphological changes(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease clinically characterized by learning and memory function deterioration. While it is well established that exercise can improve cognitive performance in AD, there have been few basic cellular and molecular mechanisms research performed to test the interaction between exercise and AD. In this(More)
We previously found that ginsenoside Rd (Rd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, protects against ischemic brain damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation in vitro and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in vivo. Considering stroke happens frequently in aged individuals, we herein sought to further define the protective effects of(More)
Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that over-expression of Neuroglobin (Ngb) is neuroprotective against hypoxic/ischemic brain injuries. In this study we tested the neuroprotective effects of Ngb over-expression against traumatic brain injury (TBI) in mice. Both Ngb over-expression transgenic (Ngb-Tg) and wild-type (WT) control mice were subjected to(More)
Recent evidence shows that functional neurogenesis exists in the adult hippocampus and that epileptic seizures can increase neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG). However, it is unknown whether different seizure severity has different effects on neurogenesis in the DG of adult rats. In this study, we examined hippocampal neurogenesis in the rat mild and(More)
Vibroacoustic disease, a progressive and systemic disease, mainly involving the central nervous system, is caused by excessive exposure to low-frequency but high-intensity noise generated by various heavy transportations and machineries. Infrasound is a type of low-frequency noise. Our previous studies demonstrated that infrasound at a certain intensity(More)