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Large-scale surveys of single-cell gene expression have the potential to reveal rare cell populations and lineage relationships but require efficient methods for cell capture and mRNA sequencing. Although cellular barcoding strategies allow parallel sequencing of single cells at ultra-low depths, the limitations of shallow sequencing have not been(More)
We present a state-of-the-art image recognition system, Deep Image, developed using endto-end deep learning. The key components are a custom-built supercomputer dedicated to deep learning, a highly optimized parallel algorithm using new strategies for data partitioning and communication, larger deep neural network models, novel data augmentation approaches,(More)
This paper uses stochastic fluid models (SFMs) for control and optimization (rather than performance analysis) of communication networks, focusing on problems of buffer control. We derive gradient estimators for packet loss and workload related performance metrics with respect to threshold parameters. These estimators are shown to be unbiased and directly(More)
We report three new structures of mitochondrial respiratory Complex II (succinate ubiquinone oxidoreductase, E.C. at up to 2.1 A resolution, with various inhibitors. The structures define the conformation of the bound inhibitors and suggest the residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis at the dicarboxylate site. In particular they(More)
BACKGROUND Drug-resistant tuberculosis poses a growing challenge to global public health. However, the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial population during acquisition of drug resistance have yet to be carefully examined. METHODS Whole-genome sequencing was performed on 7 serial Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) populations from 3 patients(More)
The mechanism of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection remains elusive. Several host factors that are involved in this complex process were previously identified. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous ∼22 nt RNAs that play important regulatory roles in a wide range of biological processes. Several studies demonstrated the clinical usefulness of miRNAs as(More)
This paper addresses the leader-follower synchronization problem of uncertain dynamical multiagent systems with nonlinear dynamics. Distributed adaptive synchronization controllers are proposed based on the state information of neighboring agents. The control design is developed for both undirected and directed communication topologies without requiring the(More)
Certain respiratory tract infections can be transmitted by hand-to-mucous-membrane contact, inhalation, and/or direct respiratory droplet spray. In a room occupied by a patient with such a transmissible infection, pathogens present on textile and nontextile surfaces, and pathogens present in the air, provide sources of exposure for an attending health-care(More)