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We have developed a procedure for visualizing GFP expression in fixed tissue after embedding in LR White. We find that GFP fluorescence survives fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.1% glutaraldehyde and can be visualized directly by fluorescence microscopy in unstained, 1 microm sections of LR White-embedded material. The antigenicity of the GFP is retained(More)
The primary cilium plays critical roles in vertebrate development and physiology, but the mechanisms underlying its biogenesis remain poorly understood. We investigated the molecular function of C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 3 (C2cd3), an essential regulator of primary cilium biogenesis. We show that C2cd3 is localized to the centriolar satellites(More)
Flow-induced dilation (FID) is dependent largely on hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in human coronary arterioles (HCA) from patients with coronary disease. Animal studies show that shear stress induces endothelial generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is proposed as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). We(More)
Emerging evidence supports a pathological link between vitamin D deficiency and the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To explore the mechanism we used the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model to investigate the role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in mucosal barrier homeostasis. While VDR(+/+) mice were mostly resistant to 2.5% DSS,(More)
A number of efforts have been made to understand how pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) functions as a neurotrophic and neuroprotective factor in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently its effects on neurotransmission and underlying mechanisms have generated interest. In the present study, we investigate the effects of PACAP on(More)
GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are localized at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Previous studies suggest an important role of γ2 and δ subunits in synaptic versus extrasynaptic targeting of GABA(A)-Rs. Here, we demonstrate differential function of α2 and α6 subunits in guiding the localization of(More)
Nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-2 or GA-binding protein is a potential transcriptional, bigenomic coordinator of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome oxidase genes. It is composed of an alpha subunit that binds DNA and a beta subunit that has the transactivating domain. Previously, we found that the level of NRF-2 paralleled that of(More)
The macaque visual cortex is exquisitely organized into columns, modules, and streams, much of which can be correlated with its metabolic organization revealed by cytochrome oxidase (CO). Plasticity in the adult primate visual system has also been documented by changes in CO activity. Yet, the molecular mechanism of regulating this enzyme remains not well(More)
BACKGROUND Very little is known about BVDV NS4B, a protein of approximately 38 kDa. However, a missense mutation in NS4B has been implicated in changing BVDV from a cytopathic to noncytopathic virus, suggesting that NS4B might play a role in BVDV pathogenesis. Though this is one possible function, it is also likely that NS4B plays a role in BVDV genome(More)
Meiosis activating sterol (MAS) have been found to be able to promote oocytes meiotic maturation of small animals in vitro, such as mouse, rat and rabbit. But in large animals, whether MAS play the same function, especially the physiological mechanisms of MAS on oocytes maturation are not clear. To our knowledge, this is the first time to investigate the(More)