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Lighter variations of pigmentation in humans are associated with diminished number, size, and density of melanosomes, the pigmented organelles of melanocytes. Here we show that zebrafish golden mutants share these melanosomal changes and that golden encodes a putative cation exchanger slc24a5 (nckx5) that localizes to an intracellular membrane, likely the(More)
We have developed a procedure for visualizing GFP expression in fixed tissue after embedding in LR White. We find that GFP fluorescence survives fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde/0.1% glutaraldehyde and can be visualized directly by fluorescence microscopy in unstained, 1 microm sections of LR White-embedded material. The antigenicity of the GFP is retained(More)
Flow-induced dilation (FID) is dependent largely on hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in human coronary arterioles (HCA) from patients with coronary disease. Animal studies show that shear stress induces endothelial generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which is proposed as an endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). We(More)
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a powerful method to visualize white matter, but its use in patients with acute stroke remains limited because of the lack of corresponding histologic information. In this study, we addressed this issue using a hypoxia-ischemia (HI)-induced thrombotic model of stroke in adult mice. At 6, 15, and 24  hours after injury,(More)
GABA(A) receptors (GABA(A)-Rs) are localized at both synaptic and extrasynaptic sites, mediating phasic and tonic inhibition, respectively. Previous studies suggest an important role of γ2 and δ subunits in synaptic versus extrasynaptic targeting of GABA(A)-Rs. Here, we demonstrate differential function of α2 and α6 subunits in guiding the localization of(More)
Although there is uncertainty about whether extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass is useful for the treatment of steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease in general, there is some argument for its continued use in particular patients. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA)(More)
Nuclear respiratory factor (NRF)-2 or GA-binding protein is a potential transcriptional, bigenomic coordinator of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded subunits of cytochrome oxidase genes. It is composed of an alpha subunit that binds DNA and a beta subunit that has the transactivating domain. Previously, we found that the level of NRF-2 paralleled that of(More)
The primary cilium plays critical roles in vertebrate development and physiology, but the mechanisms underlying its biogenesis remain poorly understood. We investigated the molecular function of C2 calcium-dependent domain containing 3 (C2cd3), an essential regulator of primary cilium biogenesis. We show that C2cd3 is localized to the centriolar satellites(More)
A first-principles-based charge-discharge model was developed to simulate the capacity fade of Li-ion batteries. The model is based on the loss of active lithium ions due to solvent reduction reaction and on the rise of the anode film resistance. The effect of parameters such as exchange current density, depth of discharge ͑DOD͒, end of charge voltage, film(More)
The macaque visual cortex is exquisitely organized into columns, modules, and streams, much of which can be correlated with its metabolic organization revealed by cytochrome oxidase (CO). Plasticity in the adult primate visual system has also been documented by changes in CO activity. Yet, the molecular mechanism of regulating this enzyme remains not well(More)