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There is an enormous gap between the antiproliferative and in vivo antitumor efficacy of gemcitabine in cell line-based models and its clinical efficacy. This may be due to insensitiveness of the precursor, cancer stem cell (CSC) compartment to cytotoxic agents. The hedgehog pathway is associated with CSC signaling and control. We used a direct xenograft(More)
In patients who were treated with exogenous BMP-2 to repair bone fractures or defects, the levels of the inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β in sera are significantly elevated, which may affect the outcome of bone regeneration. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), p38, and(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) is a novel differentiation factor that is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, making it an attractive option in treatment of bone defects, fractures, and spine fusions. Inflammation, which was a common situation during bone healing, is recognized to inhibit osteogenic differentiation and(More)
Gene expression in normal cells is highly regulated by complex gene regulatory networks. Disruption of these networks may lead to cancer. Recent studies have revealed the existence of an abundant class of small nonprotein-coding regulatory RNAs, known as microRNAs (miRNAs). MiRNAs may regulate diverse biological processes including development, cell(More)
Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are critical to gastrointestinal motility. The phenotypes of ICC progenitors have been observed in the mouse gut, but whether they exist in the human colon and what abnormal changes in their quantity and ultrastructure are present in Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) colon remains uncertain. In this study, we collected the(More)
Hepatic cancer is one of most common cause of cancer-related death. Hepato-epithelial cancers are believed to originate from the malignant transformation of liver-resident stem/progenitor cells. Liver cancer stem cells have been characterized recently and the phenotype of liver cancer stem cells has been defined as CD133+ CD44+ cancer cells. Recently, it(More)
The factors that regulate murine ES cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) commitment to the B lymphocyte lineage remain unclear. Pu.1 plays an essential role in the development of all lymphoid lineages; however, it also regulates commitment to other blood cell lineages. In this study, we found evidence for early B cell lineage commitment as(More)
The apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1/redox factor-1 (Ape-1/Ref-1) is a multi-functional protein, involved in DNA repair and the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors. The Ape-1/Ref-1 redox domain acts as a cytoprotective element in normal endothelial cells, mitigating the deleterious effects of apoptotic stimuli through induction of(More)
Shp-2 is a member of a small family of cytoplasmic Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatases. Although Shp-2 has been shown to be necessary for hematopoiesis using a mouse model expressing a mutant residual protein (Shp-2(delta/delta)), we used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to reduce Shp-2 expression and examined the consequences(More)
The history of stem cell research was started in the early 1900s in Europe where the researcher realized that various types of blood cells came from a particular "stem cells." However, it was not until 1963 that the first quantitative description of the self-renewal activities of transplanted mouse bone marrow cells were documented by Canadian scientist(More)