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There is an emerging understanding of the importance of the vascular system within stem cell niches. Here, we examine whether neural stem cells (NSCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) lie close to blood vessels, using three-dimensional whole mounts, confocal microscopy, and automated computer-based image quantification. We found that the SVZ contains(More)
BACKGROUND Automated segmentation of fluorescently-labeled cell nuclei in 3D confocal microscope images is essential to many studies involving morphological and functional analysis. A common source of segmentation error is tight clustering of nuclei. There is a compelling need to minimize these errors for constructing highly automated scoring systems. (More)
Mitochondria undergo fission-fusion events that render these organelles highly dynamic in cells. We report a relationship between mitochondrial form and cell cycle control at the G(1)-S boundary. Mitochondria convert from isolated, fragmented elements into a hyperfused, giant network at G(1)-S transition. The network is electrically continuous and has(More)
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the adult subventricular zone (SVZ) are associated with ependymal and vasculature niches, which regulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. Activated Type B stem cells and their progeny, the transit-amplifying type C cells, which express EGFR, are most highly associated with vascular cells, indicating that this(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has the remarkable ability to resist killing by human macrophages. The 750 kDa proteasome, not available in most eubacteria except Actinomycetes, appears to contribute to Mtb's resistance. The crystal structure of the Mtb proteasome at 3.0 A resolution reveals a substrate-binding pocket with composite features of the(More)
Brain structural complexity has confounded prior efforts to extract quantitative image-based measurements. We present a systematic 'divide and conquer' methodology for analyzing three-dimensional (3D) multi-parameter images of brain tissue to delineate and classify key structures, and compute quantitative associations among them. To demonstrate the method,(More)
BACKGROUND Automated segmentation of fluorescently labeled cell nuclei in three-dimensional confocal images is essential for numerous studies, e.g., spatiotemporal fluorescence in situ hybridization quantification of immediate early gene transcription. High accuracy and automation levels are required in high-throughput and large-scale studies. Common(More)
Genes predicted to be associated with the putative proteasome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) play a critical role in defence of the bacillus against nitrosative stress. However, proteasomes are uncommon in eubacteria and it remains to be established whether Mtb's prcBA genes in fact encode a proteasome. We found that coexpression of recombinant PrcB(More)
Proteasome-mediated protein turnover in all domains of life is an energy-dependent process that requires ATPase activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) was recently shown to possess a ubiquitin-like proteasome pathway that plays an essential role in Mtb resistance to killing by products of host macrophages. Here we report our structural and biochemical(More)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) defends itself against host immunity and chemotherapy at several levels, including the repair or degradation of irreversibly oxidized proteins (IOPs). To investigate how Mtb deals with IOPs that can neither be repaired nor degraded, we used new chemical and biochemical probes and improved image analysis algorithms for(More)