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Traditional association mining algorithms use a strict definition of support that requires every item in a frequent itemset to occur in each supporting transaction. In real-life datasets, this limits the recovery of frequent itemset patterns as they are fragmented due to random noise and other errors in the data. Hence, a number of methods have been(More)
The transcriptome is the readout of the genome. Identifying common features in it across distant species can reveal fundamental principles. To this end, the ENCODE and modENCODE consortia have generated large amounts of matched RNA-sequencing data for human, worm and fly. Uniform processing and comprehensive annotation of these data allow comparison across(More)
The genome has often been called the operating system (OS) for a living organism. A computer OS is described by a regulatory control network termed the call graph, which is analogous to the transcriptional regulatory network in a cell. To apply our firsthand knowledge of the architecture of software systems to understand cellular design principles, we(More)
BACKGROUND Gene clustering plays an important role in the organization of the bacterial chromosome and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its extent. However, the controversies raised about the validity of each of these mechanisms remind us that the cause of this gene organization remains an open question. Models proposed to explain clustering(More)
Oligoribonuclease is the only RNase in Escherichia coli that is able to degrade RNA oligonucleotides five residues and shorter in length. Firmicutes including Bacillus subtilis do not have an Oligoribonuclease (Orn) homologous protein and it is not yet understood which proteins accomplish the equivalent function in these organisms. We had previously(More)
BACKGROUND The recent availability of dabigatran, a novel oral anticoagulant, provided a new treatment option for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation beyond warfarin, the main therapy for years. Little is known about their real-world comparative effectiveness and safety, even less among patient demographic and clinical subgroups. METHODS AND RESULTS(More)
Unlike English, Chinese uses a numerical system for naming months and days. This study explored whether this difference in naming affects the development of simple calendar calculation. Eight- and 10-year-old children as well as undergraduates in China and the United States were asked to name the day or month that comes a specified time before or after a(More)