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Peer-to-peer (P2P) networks establish loosely coupled application-level overlays on top of the Internet to facilitate efficient sharing of resources. They can be roughly classified as either structured or unstructured networks. Without stringent constraints over the network topology, unstructured P2P networks can be constructed very efficiently and are(More)
Microglia are regarded as macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS) and play an important role in neuroinflammation in the CNS. Microglial activation has been strongly implicated in neurodegeneration in the brain. Increasing evidence also suggests an important role of spinal cord microglia in the genesis of persistent pain, by releasing the(More)
Previous studies have shown that activation of p38 mitogen-activating kinase (MAPK) in spinal microglia participates in the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain in various rodent models. However, these studies focused on male mice to avoid confounding effects of the estrous cycle of females. Recent studies have shown that some spinal(More)
Voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels control the upstroke of the action potentials in excitable cells. Multiple studies have shown distinct roles of NaV channel subtypes in human physiology and diseases, but subtype-specific therapeutics are lacking and the current efforts have been limited to small molecules. Here, we present a monoclonal antibody that(More)
As the latest government effort to reform China's health care system, Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) was piloted in seventy-nine cities during the summer of 2007, following State Council Policy Document 2007 No. 20's guidelines. This study presents the first economic analysis of URBMI, following a national household survey in nine(More)
STUDY DESIGN Observational cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE To perform a psychometric evaluation of Simplified Chinese versions of back pain beliefs questionnaires for use in health care professionals living in mainland China. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Back pain beliefs are of importance in the development of chronic low back pain (LBP) and disability.(More)
The central part of pricing agricultural commodity futures options is to find appropriate stochastic process of the underlying assets. The Black’s (1976) futures option pricing model laid the foundation for a new era of futures option valuation theory. The geometric Brownian motion assumption girding the Black’s model, however, has been regarded as(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that spinal cord astrocytes play an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization by releasing astrocytic mediators (e.g. cytokines, chemokines and growth factors). However, it remains unclear how astrocytes control the release of astrocytic mediators and sustain late-phase neuropathic pain. Astrocytic connexin-43 (now(More)
Intracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression. The role of extracellular miRNAs in neuronal activation and sensory behaviors are unknown. Here we report an unconventional role of extracellular miRNAs for rapid excitation of nociceptor neurons via toll-like receptor-7 (TLR7) and its coupling to TRPA1 ion channel. miRNA-let-7b induces(More)
Green tea ( Lǜ Chá), made from the leaves of the plant Camellia sinensis, has traditionally been used as a medicine in China for thousands of years. According to the classical work of Li Shizhen ( Lǐ Shí Zhēn) of the Ming Dynasty, "tea is cold and lowers the fire." Since fire (inflammation) causes many diseases, could tea be effective in the prevention of(More)